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Like a good neighbor, State Farm is there. This is our American stories. And our next story? Well, it's a bit of American history. It's the story of Aaron Burr. And you know him, perhaps, from your high school American history classes, what little you may remember from them.
Or maybe from the Broadway musical, Hamilton. But who was Aaron Burr? Well, Bill Bryke is here to tell us a little bit more about the often reviled politician. Here's Bill. Lin-Manuel Miranda, in his extraordinary Hamilton, an American musical, brilliantly captures Aaron Burr in three lines. The free advice he has Burr offer to Alexander Hamilton when they first meet in 1776. Talk less. Smile more.
Don't let them know what you're against or what you're for. Around twilight on June 7, 1812, a 56-year-old man returned from six years self-imposed European exile. He landed in New York, somewhere near today's South Street seaport. He hastened to a friend's house at 66 Water Street, only to find no one at home. Only around midnight did he find a room, already occupied by five other men, in a plain house along a dark alley. In the morning, he returned to find his friend, Samuel Swartout, at home. And after an affectionate welcome, the Swartout brothers lodged him.
The charm that had borne Burr up throughout his life remained potent. A boyhood friend and longtime political opponent, Robert Troop, lent him ten dollars and a law library. Then, ten dollars was real money.
Then, as now, a law library is essential to one's practice. He rented space at 9 Nassau Street. He took out some newspaper advertisements. He ordered a small tin sign, brightly lacquered, bearing his name, and tacked it to the outside wall. When he arrived to open his office on the morning of July 5, 1812, a line of clients awaited him.
Hundreds more would follow. Within twelve days, his receipts totaled what was then a staggering two thousand dollars. However, the inhabitants of New York viewed the man, Milton Lomax wrote, they had not forgotten the skills of the advocate. Thus, Aaron Burr, former colonel in the Army of the Revolution, former attorney general of New York, former United States senator, and former vice president of the United States, resumed the practice of law. He had been born February 6, 1756, in Newark, New Jersey. He entered Princeton in the sophomore class at thirteen, took his degree with distinction at sixteen, and even spoke at commencement. He was elegant from youth, small, slender, broad-shouldered, and handsome. He had fine taste in clothes, to which dozens of unpaid tailors on two continents would attest. His manners were exquisite, his conversation never palled, and whether in the courtroom or the Senate, he spoke quietly and conversationally, without bombast or literary allusion. He strove to see things as they are, not as they ought to be, and possessed a massive savoir-faire, dexterity enough to conceal the truth without telling a lie, sagacity enough to read other people's countenances, and serenity enough not to let them discover anything by yours.
He was also throughout his life much pursued by women, and they never had to run very far or very fast. He fought for American independence at Quebec, Brooklyn, and Morningside Heights. He was a lieutenant colonel at twenty-two, wintered at Valley Forge, and had a horse shot from under him at Monmouth on June 28, 1778. That means he had gone in harm's way, for he might have been hit by the shot that killed his charger.
Only one who has been thrown from a horse can understand what that means, the pains of having the wind knocked out of you if not muscles sprained and bones broken. The man of pleasure once single-handedly suppressed a mutiny in his regiment. A ringleader levelled his musket at Burr, shouting, Now is the time, my brave boys. The last syllable had barely left his lips when Burr, having drawn his sword, severed the man's arm just above the elbow.
The regiment knew no more mutinies. During his service he met Theodosia Prevost, the wife of a British officer serving in the West Indies. Burr later wrote that she possessed the truest heart, the ripest intellect, and the most winning manners of any woman he had ever met. She spoke French fluently, frequently quoted the Latin poets, and read avidly. Burr admired and wanted her.
She responded with warmth and friendship. Her husband died in 1781. She married Burr the following year. Nothing so testifies to Theodosia Prevost's character, charm, and intelligence than that this sensual, cynical man was throughout their marriage her loving, faithful husband. More, though Burr was a feminist by instinct, he admired Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Women and kept a print of Mrs. Wollstonecraft's portrait on his wall, his marriage made those beliefs heartfelt. He was among the first practical politicians, and Burr was nothing if not practical, to work for women's education on a par with men. It was a knowledge of your mind, he wrote to Theodosia, which first inspired me.
The ideas which you have often heard me express in favor of female intellectual powers are founded on what I have seen in you. She died in 1794 after 12 years of marriage. He never ceased to mourn her. Perhaps their relationship was the noblest achievement of his life. In Hamilton, Burr is asked, if you stand for nothing, Burr, what will you fall for?
Clearly, at least in his love for Theodosia and his passion for human rights, he stood for something. In 1782, he was admitted to the New York bar at the age of 26. He was elected to the legislature in 1784 at 28, where he fought to abolish slavery and appointed Attorney General in 1789, when he was 33. In 1791, he defeated Philip Schuyler, father-in-law of Alexander Hamilton, for the United States Senate. Thus, the feud between Hamilton and Burr began.
The new senator worked hard without taking politics seriously. For him, it was the pursuit of fun and honor and profit. This earned him the antipathy of Thomas Jefferson, who took politics almost as seriously as he did himself.
To be fair, perhaps that is not entirely true. We know Jefferson had red hair in part because he preserved a letter addressed to him as, you red-headed son of a bitch. Yet the Virginian and Burr needed one another. Burr controlled the country's first mass party organization, the Society of St. Tammany. If Thomas Jefferson was the Democrats' first ideologue, Burr was their first mechanic. In 1800, the Jeffersonians nominated Senator Burr for vice president and his troubles began. Presidential electors then voted for two candidates without specifying a preference for president and for vice president. The candidate receiving the most votes became president. The second-place candidate became vice president. Jefferson and Burr tied with 73 votes each. The election went to the House of Representatives. The Federalists, who detested Jefferson, sought to elect Burr instead. After 36 ballots, the House finally elected Jefferson president and Burr vice president.
There is no evidence that Burr had plotted with the Federalists to win the presidency. Nonetheless, Jefferson, who always had a slight touch of paranoia, froze him out and withheld patronage from his followers. And you're listening to the remarkable story of Aaron Burr, and my goodness, Princeton at 13. And we often talk about the fact that, boy, in earlier days, people grew up faster, and maybe it wasn't a bad thing. And my goodness, knowing the sting of battle, which Aaron Burr did know, at 22 a lieutenant colonel, he wintered at Valley Forge, his horse was shot out from underneath him in the Battle of Monmouth in New Jersey. And my goodness, the man knew battle, knew politics, and knew love.
When we come back, more of the story of Hamilton's chief antagonist, telling his side of the story, Aaron Burr's story, here on Al American Stories. is giving you the chance to win custom swag and amazing prizes by joining their Pass the Ball challenge. Just grab a specially marked bag of Lay's, Cheetos, or Doritos, scan the QR code, and look for the Golden World Soccer Ball. Be part of history by adding your picture to the Golden Ball. Explore the ever-growing soccer community, find friends on the ball, and receive a one-of-a-kind collectible NFT.
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Our iHeartRadio Jingle Ball coming live from New York to the CW app at CWTV.com on December 9th. This is DJ EFN. The Black Effect Podcast Network is sponsored by BetterHelp Online Therapy. Life can get overwhelming for all of us. For many people, it's not easy to open up to someone and discuss our vulnerabilities. But not long ago, I found myself in a place where I needed someone to talk to. I'm a relatively new father with two very young children in the home. And although I always wanted kids, I waited because I was wanting to be as stable as possible in my life, both mentally and financially. What I learned is never the right time because life doesn't work that way. And the pressure I felt and feel wanting to be the father I never had is a heavy weight at times to bear. Compound that with the career and lifestyle that goes with my career, I find myself in dual worlds that often don't mesh. Nothing comes easy and every day is a work in progress. But as long as you're working on yourself, you're moving in the right direction. BetterHelp is secure online therapy that offers video, phone, and even live chat sessions with a licensed professional therapist.
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That's betterhelp.com slash black effect. And we're back with our American stories and the story of Aaron Burr. When we last left off with Bill Bryke, after being elected president, Thomas Jefferson froze Burr and his constituents out.
We return to Bill Bryke with the rest of this story. In April 1804, Burr, knowing Jefferson would not allow his renomination later that year, ran for governor of New York. Hamilton had come to hate Burr, and Hamilton's rage was reflected in his intensely personal campaigning, which included indiscreet personal remarks reported in the newspapers. Burr was heavily defeated.
Burr seized upon correspondence published in the Albany Register. Dr. Charles Cooper wrote, General Hamilton and Judge Kent have declared in substance that they looked upon Mr. Burr to be a dangerous man, and I could detail to you a still more despicable opinion which General Hamilton has expressed of Burr. Burr requested an acknowledgment or denial of the still more despicable opinion of himself attributed to Hamilton. Two days later, Hamilton replied with a lengthy dissertation on the meaning of despicable.
Burr responded, The common sense of mankind affixed to the word the idea of dishonor. He then demanded Hamilton generally disavow any intention to convey impressions derogatory to the honor of Mr. Burr. Hamilton was trapped.
This would have meant denying a great deal of his political conversations, speeches, and correspondence over two decades. Hamilton now feebly offered that he could not recall using any term that would justify Dr. Cooper's construction. Burr again demanded a disclaimer. Hamilton refused. On the 27th, 1804, Burr challenged and Hamilton accepted. On Wednesday, July 11th, 1804, at 7am, the two men stood 10 paces apart on the Weehawken Shore in New Jersey, pistols in hand. Hamilton, perhaps a second before his opponent, fired into the air.
Burr shot true. He was indicted for murder in New York and in New Jersey. While his lawyers and friends worked to quash the indictments, he returned to Washington, D.C., where he resumed his duties as vice president.
On March 2nd, 1805, his last day in public office, Burr rose from the chair. He stood before a hall of professional politicians familiar with every rhetorical device, many of whom hated him. Without changing his customary conversational tone, he spoke briefly of the United States and the Senate itself. The Senate, he said, is a sanctuary, a citadel of law, of order and of liberty. And it is here, it is here in this exalted refuge, here, if anywhere, will resistance be made to the storms of political frenzy and the silent arts of corruption.
And if the Constitution be destined ever to perish by the sacrilegious hands of the demagogue or the usurper, which God averts, its expiring agonies will be witnessed on this floor. Then, having spoken for once from the heart, he stepped down, walked across the chamber and went out the door. He was only 49 years old. Behind him, the Senate sat in silence. Senator Samuel Mitchell of New York wrote, My colleague, General Smith, stout and manly as he is, wept as profusely as I did.
He did not recover for a quarter of an hour. Even before leaving office, Burr had begun a conspiracy. Precisely what Burr planned remains a mystery, a puzzle, a lock without a key. He told his first biographer, Matthew L. Davis, The scheme he called X was intended to revolutionize Mexico and settle some lands he had in Texas.
Perhaps it was. But the legends remain and the papers tantalize. The maps of New Orleans, Veracruz and the roads to Mexico City and the correspondence hinting he would not liberate but seize Mexico, draw the western states from the Union, and combining them into one nation, stand at the throne of the Aztecs and crown himself Emperor of the West. The gods invite us to glory and fortune, Burr wrote to his co-conspirator, General James Wilkinson, then General-in-Chief of the United States Army. John Randolph of Roanoke, most ferocious of politicians, called Wilkinson, The mammoth of iniquity, the only man I ever saw who was from the bark to the very core a villain.
Wilkinson, whose self-designed uniforms, encrusted with gold braid and frogging, failed to conceal his enormous girth. He was, as we now know, a paid agent of Spain, a man on the take. At some point, Wilkinson ratted out Burr to Jefferson. On November 27, 1806, Jefferson issued a proclamation that led to the collapse of the plot, Burr's arrest, and Burr's indictment for treason by levying war against the United States. Wilkinson was not the subject of prosecution, though we now know that Jefferson, too, knew Wilkinson was taking money from the Spanish. Perhaps Wilkinson knew too much in an age not yet so cruel as to eliminate those who knew too much. Burr was tried in Richmond, Virginia, before Chief Justice John Marshall, Jefferson's third cousin.
The cousins detested one another. The prosecutor insinuated that Marshall would be impeached if he did not rule for the prosecution on the evidentiary motions. Marshall noted the threat in his decision. He also noted the Constitution requires treason to be proven by the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act of treason. Of the dozens of witnesses presented by the government, none had testified to an overt act.
Marshall then excluded all evidence presented by the government as merely corroborative and incompetent. Within 25 minutes, the jury found Burr not guilty. Now, in a self-imposed exercise in discretion, Burr left for Europe. At first, Burr sought financial support for X from the British and then the French.
Nothing came of it. From the exile's beginning, Burr recorded his experiences in his private journal. Perhaps its saddest revelations are that this vital, charming man was so easily bored. Yet, as Lomask writes, there was a limit to how many parties he could attend, how many ceremonies he could watch, how many books he could read, how many bright and articulate people he could draw within the radiant circle of his charm. He devoted his energies to fornication, with prostitutes if necessary, and other women when possible.
Lomask notes he described his amatory encounters as muse, a French hunting term meaning the beginning of the rutting season in animals. This suggests that he despised himself for treating sex in this way. Yet some principles remained uncompromised despite boredom and the lack of money.
He never descended to drinking cheap wine. After his return to the United States, he only dabbled in politics. In 1812, he was pulling strings from an unknown man in the West named Andrew Jackson, who will do credit to a commission in the army if conferred upon him. When Jackson became president in 1829, Samuel Swartout, whose hospitality Burr had enjoyed on his return from exile, was appointed collector of the Port of New York with Burr's help.
As M.R. Werner relates in his history of Tammany Hall, Swartout later hurried to Europe when his accounts showed that he had borrowed from the government's funds the sum of $1,225,705.69. The public, with that charming levity that has always characterized its attitude toward wholesale plunder, made the best of a bad situation by coining a new term. When a man put the government's money into his own pocket, it was said he had Swartout it. In 1833, Burr married Eliza Jummel, perhaps the richest American woman of the time. She had, after what may have been the most successful career of her age as, shall we say, a working girl, married an extremely wealthy man. By the time she married Burr, Madame Jummel was a widow. Burr probably married her for her money.
Within the year, she began divorce proceedings on the grounds of adultery, a remarkable, even heartening accusation against a man of 78. On September 14, 1836, the day on which the decree of divorce from Madame Jummel was entered by the court, Aaron Burr died in a second floor room at Winans Inn, 2040 Richmond Terrace in Port Richmond, Staten Island. Two days later, he was buried beside his father and grandfather in Princeton, New Jersey. Lomask wrote, for nearly 20 years the grave went unmarked.
Then a relative arranged for the installation of a simple marble slab. In 1995, the Aaron Burr Association placed a bronze plaque on the grave that recites his services to the republic. And great job on that by Robbie, our producer, and Bill Bryke. Aaron Burr's story, here on Our American Story. The biggest holiday party of the year, Jingle Ball!
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Whisper: medium.en / 2022-11-23 04:25:09 / 2022-11-23 04:34:23 / 9