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May 15, 2022 8:00 am
Dr. John med school whilst October when I had been invited to speak in Greenville, the Reformation weekend 433 Presbyterian Church and he was also speaking, and he presented to historical programs, one on one were going to hear this morning on Martin Luther in the diet of worms and the other on the influence of the Bible. On the whole subject of history to church history, but history as we know it today. That was a very fascinating program as well. Dr. Maxwell first began to teach BJ you in Greenville in 1971 he went away for a while.
Virginia came back and continued teaching there.
He is a member of a three Presbyterian Church in Greenville.
Teachers are love for ref for the Reformation for theology and I've got to know them a little bit better.
Just yesterday, and it's been a delight to do that and so Dr. John Mexico if you will come now. Thank you for coming.
I feel very comfortable here.
We sure theological perspective musical perspectives your pastor and I were both in school together along with Joan Pinkston who was the compiler of the hymnbook were my personal friend I we had to wait for next week to get our hymnbook's faith free. But, she sighed. I have a long inscription in mind a copy of the book. I think I counted the number of tunes. She wrote that during the book and it's like 70 something like that just she sits fantastic and very very humble and many physical problems over the years and just recently she's been able to come back and play the piano again at faith free have a lot of things that are similar between not only did your pastor and I were in school together but also for both cancer survivors and were both past the age of retirement but not retired. Mr. so I'm very happy to be here today. I guess I should start by saying something about Martin Luther in a mighty Fortress ever see the German on that the words like to elect goods and kindred go. It's a lot stronger injuring myself and for some and you I won't go into that. That's mighty Fortress is one of the few of Sam's early know for sure that he wrote both the words and music that others were not quite sure if he wrote was quite gifted actually as an amateur music Catholic. If there's anything else I want to say before for I go on to what I plan. I think I think I just II guess I say that I'm up teacher by training rather than a preacher, so there's no application is such but I am willing to answer questions at the end I'll try. If you are not afraid of me to ask questions at the end of the shot. I try not to say more than I know for I don't know if anybody here is ever heard of William Lyon Phelps. He was an English teacher at Yale and also a Baptist minister.
Those two things don't sound like they go together, but 100 years ago they could. Whether Phelps was a real Christian.
Not if the reader sermons. It's not really but one of the things he said was it's impossible for man, no matter how self-aware he is to stand up before an audience is not say more than he knows. So this is the 501st anniversary of the direct forms I guess. I guess the first thing is we get the painful joke out of the way first.
So stated once asked me while standing in front of the class if there was a connection between between the word diet meaning a meeting of political leaders, and the word diet as an eating less food and it was one of the things we hate students to do this by understanding from class and I said I get back to so the answer is sort of the food kind of diet is how much food you eat per day in the political kind of diet is a meeting that began on a particular day like day when the counselors of the Holy Roman Empire met together. So, possibly, but not absolutely certainly Latin word Aita comes from the classical Latin word Deas day if you know something about German you know that that day business got into their word for a legislator to the Bundestag that day.
Word is there, but there's absolutely no etymological connection between the city of forms and the creatures that crawl in the ground and I guess I should say right here that I'd gonna save forms if you say worms that's fine. The problem with trying to beat to correct here is that the word DI ET and Germans can be pronounced deet and if I said deet make everybody think of bug spray or something.
So I'm not going to do that but if I were giving a lecture on Ricardo Wagner and I said Richard Wagner's need all think I was ignorant that's message so when you look at this map how many tiny states would you guess what part of the Holy Roman Empire and losers day.
Well, roughly 300. Although you can make it to make any kind. Guess you want on this. It just depends on what you count, but if you read it in books think they say 300 so some are bigger than others. Obviously that's why the Holy Roman Empire had whole diets. The Empire was so loosely organized that it had no national legislature, even capital, so the rulers of these many states or the representatives rotated around the larger towns of greater Germany. The Emperor himself have a lot less clout than the title might seem to emperors job is more like trying to herd cats and was being the kind of thing we think of as being an important day.
Even though the Emperor at this moment was so important as the hops work ruler Charles V and well he controlled more of Europe than anyone else in the thousand years between Charlemagne and Napoleon maybe back in your day you remember in classes they had maps that were on stands and had maps down from on a big roller like some of the older folks remember they don't make those maps and more in some amounts are still around that Omega may mark as everybody uses this, but I had.
There were three maps of my maps that I taught European history that were named after people, one or more Charlemagne one of them was Napoleon. We see that there's a thousand years between Charlemagne, Napoleon the third one was Europe at the time of Charles V. So that's that's how important Charles V was so Charles V controlled all of Europe that you see here on the map. That's that include Spain part of Italy, Austria, benevolence, and then within the dotted line is the Holy Roman Empire.
Plus you also remember starting grade school about hearing about Cortez and Pizarro in the Aztecs and the Incas, and all those guys and you remember that they the Spanish at this point had conquered Latin America, South Central, and South part of South America so on the right side of the map you see those parts of the New World. Also part of Charles with this impressive territory wise he controlled more territory in theory, Van did Charlemagne or Napoleon.
So that's important in theory, how important is that you think Charles looks a little strange that strange triangular face includes what sometimes called the Habsburg drawl, which was the result of centuries of inbreeding among Habsburg.
This inbreeding eventually got the dynasty and even whole European balance of power in trouble's, maybe again some of the older folks remember studying school something called the war the Spanish succession and the reason why there was a war of Spanish succession at the beginning of the 18th century was that one of the Habsburgs was so inbred that is stated that Intermarrying in the same family for so long that the guy was, he was completely unable to reproduce and also he was, not mentally sharp so this war was triggered by the Habsburgs.
Anyway, one of the problems with Habsburgs as they had this this physical malady. This the last guy that I mentioned Charles II of Spain's drawl was so outlined that he could actually chew his food, but the fellow that were talking about now. Charles V of the eventually grew a beard, and he also got artists that could paint more flattering portraits of and there was nothing wrong with him. Intellectual intellectual he was no dummy at all into the early modern world of Charles V came Martin Luther who was born team 83.
Curiously, he was born in Bob Jones Senior were born almost exactly the same for anybody knows that sent me in here.
Luther's parents. Wonderful pictures widely.
Why do we have.
Why do we have pictures of Luther's parents and the answer is one of the reasons is one of the best artists in Germany at the time Lucas Granik with in their area and Luther was so young that his parents were still alive when he was famous so that's why we have this is wonderful, wonderful pair of portraits.
So here's here's Luther also painted by my crank Mansfield is Luther's boyhood home on this map and enough you can see it's number but the numbers and but so this this here at number one is his number one is and on numbers three, right next to the church so that's where he went to school. There's nothing especially anti-Catholic about the area. They came from or his hometown.
Some people suggested maybe the reason why Luther was away was was because his parents were overly harsh and discipline.
Well, it was an era in which you know you if you didn't spare the rod and spoil the child so that this poem is partial 11. There is nothing about Luther's background that points to being raised in any unusual way.
Then when he was when Luther was a teenager she attended what we call secondary school and he was very good at it.
Martin Luther was a very smart guy, talented in many many ways. Not only things that we would expect, like rhetoric, but also in things like poetry and had a wonderful singing voice and you might expect, being the kind of guy that you think Luther was that he must've had this doctor is he in convoys when he had a sweet tender voice and he played the loot so accompanied himself as a picture of Luther as a teenager.
You might wonder how we can have a picture of Luther as a teenager and the answer is it's not a real picture.
It's it was was drawn in 1971 S. a conjecture but it feels right to me with his father had had risen from being sort of an upper level peasant to becoming highly skilled as a minor. He gotten investing minds and so with his father was able to send Luther to college which normally would not of been what people could do and lest they were in the nobility before that time. So he went to the University of Erford, which was a big town about 20,000 people with a graduated with a bachelor of arts in 1502 and received a master's degree in 1505 and enrolled in the school's law.
Now his dad wanted him to be a lawyer. That was the next step up. There was some mobility at the end of the Middle Ages, but so having at the next level and the answer is you become a lawyer and then you become a judge so that was that was his dad's idea.
1505, Luther was already thinking seriously about spiritual things have a friend of his had died suddenly and then he was caught in a terrible thunderstorm and he thought he was going to be killed, and he took refuge under a tree which was not the sensible thing to do and and prayed to St. and who is the patron saint of minors. He promised that if she would spare his life that he would enter the monastery.
His father was very unhappy so Luther entered the Augustinian monastery at Erford in 1505 and the monastery was noted both for its exemplary life of the people who live there, and its emphasis on learning, so this was not the typical medieval thing like the Friar Tuck business where we eat, drink and be merry and epidural time and pretend were being religious. These these people took religion seriously and by the way, the picture does show Erford the monastery were Luther actually entered. So it really looked like a monastery sex imaginary picture but this is the real place and his vicar general was the finest stop expense topics. Luther set a stop. It's if it hadn't been for stop. It's out of going to hell and stop which is very is a fascinating character because he never left the Catholic Church but he had enough. He understood Luther enough. He understood the gospel of grace enough.
I think stop it's in heaven so Luther became a priest in 1507. He was with his father showed up at the first mass bringing a wagon load of food to serve as they had like a ceremony there afterwards, but he made it clear that he did not like Luther being a priest and he actually said maybe it was a joke. Maybe it wasn't, but he said right then you know the Bible says you should honor your father and mother and second visit. Luther was a kind person. It is really seriously so. According to the Catholic notion of monastic baptism.
He was supposed to have received permission of both the guilt and punishment for sins when he took his monastic vows, but Luther was greatly troubled in spirit. It's really hard for me to express how Luther felt about spiritual things mean he went to confession and is difficult for Catholics to go to confession, but he would confess it's hard for me to believe this but I'm telling you what what everybody says in which I assume is true that he sometimes confessed for six hours about the sins that he committed the practice all sorts of mortification of the flesh to try to relieve the guilt of sin infested, sometimes for three days in a row without any crime spent monumental amount of times and vigils and prayers its rough blankets that the monastery allowed him to have nearly froze to death in the bone chilling cold is a great story that I was afraid put it here are my slides because I'm not quite sure it's one of those tales that he actually went out try to sleep in the snow and the brothers went grab of the Dragon back into the room freeze to death. Of course none of this. Did anything to alleviate Luther's guilt, but probably damaged his health and the rest of his life. With that said I was a good monk kept the role of my order so strictly that I may say that if ever a monk got to heaven by his mockery. It was I if I kept on it any longer as Tillman's. Meanwhile, Luther said later he had no love for God. How can he love God's righteousness was continually judging the unrighteousness of men, as this seems to of been a place where Luther was willing to accept the fact that he was going to hell he just couldn't see any way that that that God could've saved him and so he said it was up to him to try to thank God for condemning him.
I did not love.
Indeed, I hated this just got him punished with a skilled terror. God was so profound and so intense that even a superior stop.
It's something of a mystic standard but stop it's had an idea about how quietness instruments. Stop it's ordered Luther to study for his doctor's degree and then become a professor Bible that meant that Luther had actually studied the Bible, rather than can continue to bend his intellect around all the theological nonsense required of educated clergyman in the Middle Ages, truly unusual for people to actually read the Bible so that was I was a wonderful thing that stop it's different.
Luther then in 1510, Luther was sent on a mission for us Augustinian order to Rome. And so for the first time he went to the capital of Christendom and the resolve the church and all of its worldliness and he also went to this place, which is still there scholar sunk to the holy step that there are 28 steps. There you can't. I was I been there and I know you've been there but I'm not allowed to walk up on your gonna go lucky guy go up on your knees so and when I was there 40 years ago. They had a big sign telling you how many days she got out of purgatory doings signout that sign still there in our enlightened but that's so course. Luther climbed like everybody else. He climbed up on the stairs. Here's a is a picture from going up the steps on his knees in the film and we got to the top.
Theoretically he the story goes that he said well I hope it's true.
So shortly before Luther received his doctorate in 1512 stop it's transferred him to the monastery at Wittenberg, which is a tiny town of 3000 new University of been founded in 1503 and 15 of two so you can see how far East Wittenberg's former it's in the former East Germany, while Luther lectured on the Bible at the University and preached in the city church. He came to understand that justification Tatian came not through works. That man could do but through the merits of Christ appropriated by faith alone.
Question is, when did Luther make this discovery be pleasant to think that Luther really understood the doctor grace in 1517 when he protested papal indulgences and spark the Reformation that affects complicated yet arrived at a complete understanding of soul a few days faith in 1517 fact I'm pretty sure it wasn't because he said himself. Luther set himself. I wish I had known what I know now what I got this whole thing start if he had understood he would've described his opposition to indulgences differently in 1517. Certainly Luther wasn't one to be shy about expressing his beliefs once he was convinced that he knew what the Bible taught, so I think if he had known he would have been it would have been hesitant to delicately scenario back up a little bit. You probably remember that the Pope Leo the 10th approved scheme whereby the Catholic Church raise a lot of money from ordinary people and those little German principalities by selling indulgences. One of the reasons why you want to sell it in Germany as there is no strong leadership there is not Spain or France. We have a king who can call the shots and say get out of my territory, he can't raise money or go someplace else. Germany was subdivided that was easy for the Pope and the Pope's minions to go there and raise money so theoretically the money that was in the race was supposed to be used to build the new St. Peter's Cathedral on the spot where recent popes and pull down the old St. Peter's slide shows old St. Peter's. I mean the building was a thousand years old. Can you imagine that just shows you what these Renaissance posts were like they're willing to pull down a thousand-year-old building to put up something new without the money to put up the new thing first amazing stuff. Now the theory that went behind this business was that this the Christ and the Saints had done more than enough good works to get them into heaven course Christ was God. But the Saints done extra good works so they didn't need any they need those extra good works and seems a shame to waste all the good works if you don't need him to go to heaven. So the theory was that these extra good works were stored up in like a treasury and the Pope to draw on the treasury and he could take him detected. Once the saints in Christ course all once a Christ that were no crisis God so he didn't need any any good works to get in heaven and they could take all those extra good works given to you for products that was the idea.
So that's the idea that the resist treasury of merit after the harpies indulgences. The Pope sent to Germany a Dominican monk, Johan pencil, who would've made a great car salesman that'll preach that not only could you by remission of your own sins. We also by release of the souls of the departed loved ones of your departed loved ones from purgatory. Even at a sales table. As soon as the coin and copper rings so soon. The sold heavens and married that German fraktur. The have have Emil of heaven springs it's pretty good translation of what is actually's saying here Melissa told some of his parishioners. The leaders in ways they showed him taxes, indulgences, some even threatened to report him to the church authorities for failure to recognize indulgence. So Luther was outraged, especially when some of these apparently some of the people who share in the indulgences were still under the effects of alcohol should so Luther decided he was going to argue against indulgences and we all know that this about this posting of the 95 theses and on October 31 1517 is the day that we celebrate the beginning of Reformation. So the question is, I mean everybody believes this happened, I just want to unlock not spent time arguing about this, but I just want to let you know that although you all y'all think you know what's true here is there's actually very little historical confirmation that this actually happened. He wrote the theses, but did he post them on the church door on October 31 and that's a different story.
The story was not told until he was dead. He had been dead for 40 years and was told by somebody a friend of his fellow Langton, who wasn't there at the time so it's it's one of those things. The dates pretty just.
The question is was he posting them.
This is a more contemporary send out the door.
The church looks like it's a college bulletin board. It's just such a wonderful mental picture. I think the idea of him getting up there like all of her peers is echo so this is the this is the 95 theses, one of things about not put you now that you say well why would a person on the doors. That number could read him considering Latin so they work in Germany were translated pretty soon afterwards. But if he if he posted in the Latin word for people that could make it, read it, except for the absent people college so I 1517, Luther was well on the way to understanding the gospel of grace detect indulgences from a remarkably Catholic it had never been Catholic doctrine that you could buy your salvation, certainly not for people who are already dead in purgatory. If it were true that money thrown into the chest and souls flying into heavenly rest that say about the value of the whole sacramental system in the Catholic Church like masses and confession said the priest, and Stan why this is a problem we might want some money you know, take my money. I like to come to mass and fashion go happened this morning. That's obviously this can be problem down the line here. There are plenty of educated people both inside and outside the clergy stood the sale of indulgences was a sort of pseudo-pious scam concocted by the papacy to separate na´ve Germans from money.
There is nothing necessarily Protestant about Luther's attack on indulgences other clergyman had said similar things for when Luther wrote a treatise defending the 95 theses, he dedicated it to the Pope, but because of the first information superhighway.
The miracle of movable type printing adopted in Europe shortly before Luther's birth.
The arguments raised by Luther were quickly circulated throughout Germany and beyond. Plus there are plenty of ordinary Germans around when the student is thought they were the first Leo the 10th seemed to be baffled what was going about what was going on in Germany.
He said maybe. Maybe it's just some kind of monastic squabble. In fact, the poster said when they get the beer out of nobody finding highest. It's like I'm clueless and someone said of Leo that he would made a group of generally been little religious on the sale of indulgences virtually ceased with okay now I understand Leo felt compelled one problem for Leo was of the Catholic Church. I never spelled out with the doctrine of indulgences so obviously it's hard to convict somebody being a heretic until you tell them what orthodoxy is to come up and say this is our doctrine, then you can cite your heretic for not believing it so that needed to be done. If Leo the 10th to quickly define the doctrine of indulgences in a way that the Catholic Church actually did during the next years at least.
Excluding sending dead people from purgatory to heaven on basis of a cash payment is possibly could've nipped the Reformation in the butt. Another possibility is if Luther could've gotten his hands on Luther and had killed or imprisoned. That might amended the Reformation before got a fair start to and course that sort of thing had certainly happen before left-hand side is the burning of costs at the end of the 15th century and the and Tyndale and 16th-century on the right, but tries he might to snag Luther Luther. Leo was frustrated by complicated political situation and this is one of those things where how much politics do I need to talk about in the answer is as little as I can get away without. I'm just gonna say the situation was very complex and political reasons.
Leo couldn't get sent. Meanwhile, Luther continued to study the Bible and take note of the practical consequences of the document grace in the process become neutral Protestant doctrine, 15, 18, Luther realized that the Greek word translated repentance in the Latin Vulgate actually meant repent. 1519, Luther declared that the pope was fallible. The church councils get air and that the ultimate divine authority of Scripture.
1520 is asserted that there only to sacraments baptism and the Lord also in 1520, deny the doctrine of transubstantiation that the substance of the bread and wine in the Lord's supper became the body and blood of Christ during mass to early modern Europeans. Luther's assault on the Catholic sacrament really picked people were burned and they were ever executed for saying Christ's real presence was in the Dutch humanist Erasmus hope to find a middle ground between Lutheran, but he thought with his attack on the sacraments made the breach. One of the things if you read about the Reformation is really striking to me is how many people long after Luther had the Reformation started were really trying hard to get the Catholic Church in process back together again.
I mean it went on for 25 years later is really serious. Let's call ecumenical Council all talk this thing out and there were lots and lots of people out there who thought that the church could be reunited again, but Erasmus, who was prescient he he he really said I think sacraments of the big deal I think that's going make the breach of approval.
Table representatives who debated with Luther table representatives who debated with Luther between the 95 theses in the diet of worms hardly talk about indulgences at all and you have to start once Luther called the Pope and antichrist indulgences seem pretty small potatoes by comparison. After Luther debated the Catholic cardinal jagged time, 15, 18 type time as stop. It's to try to get Luther to recant stop. It said, I've often tried but I'm not equal to him and ability in command of Scripture near the Pope's representative. It's up to you and Ketan replied I'm not going to talk with him anymore.
His eyes are as deep as a lake and their amazing speculations and meanwhile the Pope had behaved warily. He needed German military assistance to check the power of both Francis the first, King of France and researching Islam under the rule of soul among magnificent is what I have to say something about politics. Both these guys were important aspects of the Reformation, so Lamon was knocking on the door of Europe. He defeated the Hungarians heat siege. The city of Vienna.
He made no secret that he won the cocker Europe so it it's hard for us to imagine Muslims being so strong that look like they might take over Europe.
In fact, he should have his T-shirt taken Vienna, but they had a real a whole lot of rain when they were seeking Vienna and he can bring up his heavy artillery that are the walls. So anyway, Charles V had to had be careful because he needed military power in order to state tax to his kingdom on either side. Furthermore, in 1518. The current Holy Roman Empire Emperor Maximilian first sign note. By the way, the Habsburg jaw, maybe even play down in this circumstance. Luther's own ruler and protector.
Frederick the Wise, the elector of Saxony temporarily had a great deal of influence. In fact, he was even named as a possible new Emperor, although he refused only after Maximilian's grandson, Charles V, the king of Spain was elected holy Roman Emperor and 20.
Did look like the Emperor. The Empire might be able to take a hard time can slither. Charles took the advice of the Pope's representative, a man named Ali under to order the burning of losers blocks in the low countries. Charles is home territory. Charles came from the low countries. His first language was French and he was King of Spain, and he learned Spanish and then of course it now he sees can be Holy Roman Empire sites can have all these Germans so using is not dumbing. However, when Oleander suggested that Charles did the same thing in Germany. Charles was reluctant cross Frederick the Wise Frederick urge that Luther be given a hearing at the Empress first diet immediate forms in January 15 21.
Oleander was unhappy. Why should this heretic be given an opportunity to speak before the term print, and Charles V was he wasn't happy either but he had already promised that if he became emperor he would he would not turn over any Germans to the Pope without cutting them at the same so that's why the whole business was a church matter that shouldn't have anything to do with the states and Oleander. Why should this German body have any say at all. I mean if you think about it some is the time when the church and state was combined but you can imagine, for instance, say Steve Pettit, the president of Bob Jones University supposedly said he's a heretic. So what are we going to about this Republic will call the Board of Trustees and will talk. Stephen seen what he has to say about this, and then Steve Pettit said why appeal to the South Carolina state legislature.
What is so that's that's where we are here now. Why should the appeal to a political body. When this is a religious eventually Charles summoned Luther forms but provided him with no right to argue on behalf of the content. However, along with the summons to appear at the diet. Charles did give Luther a letter safe conduct to and from Wittenberg so that the top part of this slide shows the summons to appear in the bottom part of it. With all that flashy stuff at the top is the safe conduct of the idea was that we will allow you to come to forms and will allow you to leave now in the past you may know that they did the same thing. The hustle hundred four and when they convicted him and Constance of being heretic. They said well will have to pay attention to sick on that because heretics don't deserve to be to be treated you know everything we can doesn't it doesn't have any authority in which I will just burn you instead. And there were people who said the Luther you can go there that you know that that I can. It then I can take this take this letter safe conduct in credence to anything convicted of being heretic set Luther's poster said, I I have to go to forms even if there is many devils and forces are roof tiles now and even more and happy Oleander published an edict against Luther's books name of Wittenberg to forms is a pretty long trip. It's about 320 miles which Luther traveled in a three horse carriage with four or five other men, large groups of people gathered to see Luther man who would dare to defy the and I think if I were going to write this is a scholarly paper and be more careful about this, but I think nobody's ever only otherwise I think it's probably the first celebrity in world history to be created by his writings alone. In other words people going out to meet great kings or conquerors of all that I think Luther is the first one, the people have to see because he was a writer he had written something and people in the scene because of books and pamphlets city of red written Oleander complained that handbills pictured, Luther was at with a halo and a dove above his head. People kiss these pictures. He said such a quantity of pencil that I was not able to obtain one hears it. Here's one of them chose the dove above head like it like a Luther was first brought before the died on April 17 1521, he was asked whether the books on the table. His gigantic pile and Luther said yes almost inaudibly and I have written more so then he was asked whether he would reject partisan and he said this touches God and his word. I beg you give me time to think about it and everybody there was just like say what you mean you travel miles and you don't know what were going to ask and NSF okay 24 hours of you 24 hours and come back in and tell us the answer to this, so the upshot was that on following day. So many people wanted to hear. Losers answered that they had a larger hall and that place was so crowded that almost nobody but the Emperor got to sit down as a standing room only crowd, and it's never pretrade this way in all portrayals of the diet. Most everybody's sitting guides of Elizabeth that's not that's everybody want heroes going so this is a three minute YouTube video and the words that Luther says here are really the words he said translating in English of course by, he said a lot more obviously audiences and elicit the whole thing because it wouldn't understand exactly what's going on, but these are these is a good three minutes worth of an issue that the Col. of what Luther said on that occasion. On April 18 1570. I also thought almost serene Majesty and your lordships may deign to note that my books on multiple of the same kind.
There are some which I have discussed religious faith and morals. Simply so that even my enemies themselves compelled to admit that these are useful even the bull.
Although harsh and cruel admits that some of my books are inoffensive them to be condemned is utterly monstrous buffs if I should begin to disavow them by asking what would I be doing would nullify alone of all men be condemning the very truth upon which friends and enemies equally agree.
I have written another book against some distinguished individuals. Those, namely who strive to preserve the Roman tyranny against these, I confess I have been more violent than my religion all profession demands but then do not set myself up as a saint.
Therefore, almost serene Majesty expose my errors overthrow them by the writings of the prophets and the evangelists.
If I am shown my errors.
I will be the first throw my books on the five. I commend myself you'll Majesty, humbly asking that I not be allowed through the agitation of mine enemies to be made hateful to you.
I have spoken the authority of popes and councils, but I have contradicted each other unless I am convinced by Scripture.
All clear reason.
My conscience is captive to the word of God.
I cannot and I will not track anything since it is neither safe nor like to go against conscience may go help real life drama was lessened by the fact that after Luther, who'd been speaking German was asked to repeat the whole thing again in Latin. Obviously people were there didn't German and Luther was he was of course very emotionally was sweating at the time, but he managed to go through the whole thing again Latin notice anything this missing from this recounting of those who speak usually Luther's pictures here I stand. God help me I can do no other. The problem is that there are all kinds of people there taking notes and in none of the contemporary people who were taking notes to those words appear when this when the transcript appeared in print.
Those words were there so I'm really I really think that he probably said something like that may be sent one language and not the other. But regardless of what of what he said I don't think he he said it with this business of I defy you.
I think it was like God help me I can't do anything else knows like any case, Charles V, in part, using material prepared by Oleander waited until the supporters of Luther left the died of forms for home and had those who remain condemned Luther and finally backdated. The resulting edict of forms to May 6 to make it appear that it been approved by the whole body of course were in May. Right now this is the actual month. This is the actual 501st anniversary of this of this decree and so here's what he said and that it forms he is selling marriage disparage confession denied the body and blood of our Lord. He's taken in his denial of free will is devil in the habit of a monk is brought together engineers into one stinking puddle is invented new ones. When the time is that no one is to harbor his followers are also to be condemned is books are to be eradicated from the memory of man as an outlaw.
Anyone who captured or killed.
Luther would be rewarded by the government authorities for doing a good work. There is no mention of indulgences at all by the way some of you might if you're if you're sharp and you know looked over at the actual document and realize that it's not.
This is not Latin. This is ranch. This is actually Charles V's personal copy and as I said he thought Frank so he rented for Charles V, desperately wanted to get rid of Luther at this point he wasn't strong enough to violate his unsafe conduct and seize and execute Luther. He had a window but when Luther headed back to Wittenberg. He was waylaid by a party of supporters who pretended to be highwayman sent by Frederick the Wise is his patron and they had Luther in the Fort Worth Castle which was within walking distance of 48 going to school in Eisenach and today with Google maps. I walking walk through Google maps from from the castle to where he went to school and spent three months at the castle. Luther grew a beard imposes a night spending his time translating the New Testament into German and in the process creating a standard German language so there's more there is Luther bolded the German language, even more greatly than the King James Bible did the English language and again you notice it, even though he grew a beard while he was doing. This is no beard. It's just not good artistic representation for the next few years.
Luther was in danger of being captured and killed by Charles V, but it never happened again. The reasons are political and take me too long to explain why every time you look like Charles was going to catch up to Luther.
There was some problem at one point, look for sure that he had an Sullivan made a move and he had to go is like Saul going after David. Yet David surrounded and also messenger came and said the Philistines and invaded and Saul had to give up and that's exactly what happened here as soon as Charles V subdued. One of his enemies. Others popped up and he was never crushed promise in 1556 at the age of 55, Charles the most powerful man in the world. The role of the global Spanish Empire gave it all up.
He advocated all his offices and retired Spanish monastery incapacitated by various elements in particular doubt caused by a modern eating and so riddled by pain that he had be carried in sedan cheers and litters.
He finally died in 1558.
So what's the importance of the died of forms will always continue to memorialize October 31 1517 is the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, but in some sense the died of forms in 1521 marks the true beginning of the Reformation by 1521, Luther had a clear understanding of the doctrines of grace by 1521 the Pope and the institutional church had missed its best chance for squelching Reformation 1521, Luther was excommunicated by the church and he was outlawed by the Emperor and so therefore he was compelled to appeal directly to the people of Germany. Luther initially thought his condemnation of the died of forms would be the end of his life and the end of the Reformation, but ultimately it proved to be merely the end of the beginning so from something and that he liked asking something Esser II probably promise I probably assume that you understood transubstantiation more than I mean I probably took it for granted.
But the idea was that when the priest elevated the host in front of the congregation at the mass CORPUS made him this is my body. When he said the magic words that Greg turned into the by actual body of Christ.
So we get the word hocus-pocus in English from pockets corpus it's the magic words so deny that people died, people died forcing Christ was not really there. If you know any listen.
She noted listen set a very complicated view of the Lord's supper and the distinction between what the Catholics believe what Wilson's believe is only a listen theologian can expect, then they called consubstantiation.
Like I said experiment is not there at the same time and Mr. Mr. Luther Luther was.
He said lots and lots of stuff and there's a wonderful book called table talk, which he had one of the things he and his wife had they had children of their own, but they also took in boarders students who were students at the University. The Elector Frederick and turned over the monastery to him and use that kind like a hostile and so the students would come to dinner with Luther and they would take notes of every gem and every clod that came out of his mouth, and they would write down and they after his death. They compiled a book called table talk which which that to which they added a woodcut of Luther Redwood at his family at the table. His wife was coming irritated this because he was always the center of attention and she would one questions the doctor what you just eat but so Luther Luther was he was ruminating about lots of things and the best thing to do if you're interested. Table talk is just a fantastic book to look at everything from popes to pregnancies to the frogs in the old he covered in that notice in this table talk so yeah I wouldn't be at all surprised if Luther said that the big problem for Luther was that once the Reformation got started and you said the Scripture is where we get we have to look at the Scripture. There is no authority but Scripture then people said wildlife your Scripture is just as good as your video Scripture and there is no authority there is no Pocono church council say this is what orthodoxy is. So one of the problems is going to be yet this splintering and and so there are all kinds of wacko people running around and Luther was very conscious that this was going be the end of him. In the end of the movement unless he went slow about some things. So good pastor