The following program is recorded content created by the Truth Network. The latest controversy in Israel.
Here's what you need to know about it. It's time for the Line of Fire with your host, biblical scholar and cultural commentator, Dr. Michael Brown. Your voice for moral sanity and spiritual clarity. Call 866-34-TRUTH to get on the Line of Fire. And now here's your host, Dr. Michael Brown. Oh, yeah, we are going to take you to the front lines of some recent events from Israel on Sunday. This is Michael Brown. Welcome to the Line of Fire. It is Thoroughly Jewish Thursday. That's right. So any Jewish related question you have of any kind, Hebrew language, Old Testament related question, messianic prophecy, Jewish background to the New Testament, controversies about modern Israel today, any Jewish related question of any kind, we absolutely welcome your calls.
866-348-7884. And my ongoing invitation to those who identify as Hebrew Israelites or in the past, black Hebrew Israelites cite for me one recognized scholar, one recognized historian of any color or background, recognized historian, recognized archaeologist, recognized linguist, recognized biblical scholar who supports the tenets of your 12 tribes chart, which, of course, I say is bogus. Of course, it's bogus.
Anyone that studied the issue in any depth knows it's bogus. But the invitation remains just one recognized scholar in any of these fields that supports the 12 tribes charts with nonsense claims like Mexico is the tribe of Issachar or Haiti is the tribe of Levi or African Americans by and large is the tribe of Judah. I was still waiting for one scintilla of factual evidence as opposed to bizarre misinterpretations of Hebrew, complete misreadings of history, bizarre misinterpretations of biblical passages.
But anyway, we won't major there. The invitation stands, though, after a lengthy debate. I'm still waiting for one, one, one proof of some kind.
Of course, they don't exist. 866-344-truth. So May 7th to 28th, three weeks, there was a period where millions of Christians around the world joined together in praying for Israel on a daily basis, many praying at least an hour a day for God's purposes, God's best, God's plans for Israel, prayer for the salvation of Israel, protection of Israel, et cetera, many fasted a day more. Some fasted the entire three weeks and it culminated May 28th. And I actually was asked to record a prayer for that. I did that a couple of different places, recorded prayers to air before that during the three weeks or on that final day. And then believers, it's a short notice, just gathered together and made their way to the southern steps of the temple. So where the temple stood, the first and second temple stood.
And they're expecting a few hundred people. I think they ended up with maybe eight hundred that came and they just came to pray and to worship and their goals, their stated goals were praying for the Bible in every language, praying for worshiping community and every community around the world, praying for God's purposes for Israel, praying for the Great Commission, et cetera. So it was lots of different things prayed for, but especially praying for Israel. This was the culminating day. And some of my friends and colleagues were there praying on that day or blowing the shofar at the southern steps, others rejoining in prayer from around the world. OK, so what happened was that there was a protest, maybe a hundred Orthodox, ultra Orthodox protesters, including some senior rabbis. So there are two things that are really, really interesting that I want to bring to your attention. All right. And I'm going to go through a number of headlines.
Let's start with this one. Let's see, Jerusalem Post. The headlines said this reporting on the story. Orthodox Jews demonstrate against Christian, and then, quote, missionaries at Western Wall. The event being protested was titled Pentecost 2023, a global day of prayer for Jerusalem and the nations, which is exactly what it was.
Here is Haaretz. Dozens of right wing Jewish activists protest evangelical event near Western Wall, dozens of right wing activists, including prominent far right rabbi and a deputy mayor of Jerusalem, protested an evangelical event taking place at the Davidson Center near Jerusalem's Western Wall, chanting insults, spitting on participants, watching windows at the center. Here's a report from Times of Israel. Near the Western Wall, Jewish radicals shout at Christian evangelicals to, quote, go home. Violent protest attended by Jerusalem Deputy Mayor Aria King underlines theological strains on the two movements political partnership.
But then there are other headlines like this one on all Israel. Com, former Israeli religious affairs minister apologizes to evangelicals for a tax near Western Wall. Kahana thanks delegates for their genuine friendship during address at the Jerusalem Prayer Breakfast. So Knesset member Matan Kahana, the official Israeli Knesset host of the 2023 Jerusalem Prayer Breakfast, addressed the Wednesday afternoon session at the Knesset in Jerusalem. Kahana, a member of Benny Gantz's National Unity Party, also served as head of Israel's religious services ministry in the previous government, the senior leader welcomed JPB delegates to Israel and thanked him for the support.
He spoke of their, quote, genuine friendship. And and spoke of of his love, their love for Israel, thrilled that they were there with them, talked about all the threats that they're facing and apologized for the way they were treated. Also want to read in the Jerusalem Post article and some of these other articles that talked about the opposition and some of the negative things that that happened.
Want you to see some of the other quotes. So here's some of the senior rabbis, Rabbi Zvi Tal, spiritual leader of the extreme right Noam Party, so called extreme right here in the Jerusalem Post. He said from the beginning, from this beginning with the belief that salvation must come to the Jew first. He said that's that was one of the opening sentences calling for leading to a global day of prayer for Jerusalem, Jewish people worldwide. He says missionary terrorism is as dangerous as Islamic terrorism. That's actually a Jerusalem deputy mayor, Aria King.
He said this. These organizations are Christian missionary organizations from Israel and abroad who haven't hidden their intentions. These Christians chose to hold this event in a place that has nothing to do with Christianity, but actually with Judaism.
Of course, Christians were says where Peter preached the sermon and Jesus worked miracles and, you know, the day of Pentecost, et cetera. And he said, do you think they would have allowed the Jews to hold a prayer service at the entrance to the Vatican or in Mecca? This is a provocation. Israel's foreign affairs ministry reacted to the demonstrations and said on Sunday night that it could condemn any violation of freedom of religion and worship in Jerusalem and any violence against religious officials in the city. The state of Israel considers freedom of religion and worship in Jerusalem, which is holy to Jews, Christians and Muslims, a central value to the fabric of life in the city. Another deputy mayor of Jerusalem, Flora Hassan Nahum, tweeted in response that she condemns, quote, the demonstration today against our Christian Zionist friends who come to support our country and our eternal capital, Jerusalem. And the Anti-Defamation League responded to the incident and said that the undeniable Jewish connection to the holy city must never justify excluding others from practicing their own beliefs and expressing their heritage. So basically what happened was this. There were protesters and that does reflect the spirit of many Orthodox Jews in the land that would be hostile to Christian Zionists having an event like this and would certainly be hostile to people like me as Jewish believers in Jesus, therefore hostile to Messianic Jews within the land.
No question about it. And their numbers are rising. At the same time, Israel as a whole, including many religious Jews, welcomes evangelical Christians, welcomes prayer for Israel, and recognizes that Christians have full liberty to practice their faith in the land and they absolutely differ with the behavior of those that protested and would look at them as extremists, would look at them in negative terms. So the thing that got reported the most was the protest and the violent nature of it, the police protected, actively protected and worked with the Christians that were there and made sure that they could hold their event. And it went on fine with worship, with prayer, with everything they did, with simulcasts around the world, it went on successfully. And the loudest message may have not been the loudest thing seen that day, but the loudest message since then is Israeli leaders saying that it's not who we are, that does not represent our spirit, that does not represent Israel's historic stance. Jews, Christians and Muslims can practice their faith here freely. And Jews, Christians, Muslims all regard Jerusalem as holy.
And in that sense, all have a right to it and access to it. Now, what will happen in the years ahead, as presumably through high birth rates, the religious population, the Orthodox population, the right leading population continues to grow. What will happen if there are continued violent tensions, which also push the country further to the right and right wing nationalist sentiments rise more and more as Israelis are attacked?
Then you dig in even more and now you're going to attack the Palestinians and things get uglier. So we shall see. And what will happen to messianic Jews within the land?
That remains a question. Right now, they can freely practice their faith here and there. There's opposition, harassment. There may be, say, religious Jews that that will surround the house of a messianic leader and chant and pray out loud and and yell in front of the house.
And the police just let the harassment go on. Those things have happened. There have been rare violent attacks by religious Jews. Those have happened.
But again, very, very rare in that case. But what will happen in the future as the country becomes more and more religious to the right, if that happens, probably more and more challenges to the faith, just like we read the gospels and acts and more and more outpouring of the spirit and more and more salvation. But the key thing is that the door stays open for the gospel, that people like me can come and serve believers in the land. Everything we do is legal. We never, ever, ever, ever, under any circumstance, engage in anything illegal, anything contrary to Israel's clear laws. Never, ever proselytize a minor that is against Israeli law. Never offer someone a financial incentive to put their faith in law.
I've never done that my entire life, anywhere outside of Israel, let alone in Israel. Of course not. God forbid. Nothing illegal.
Nothing that is illegal missionary work. Of course, we'll be falsely accused, but we'll never engage in any such thing. But will the door remain open? I believe it will, by the grace of God and by the will of God, because God sets doors before us, no one can shut.
Doesn't mean that things won't get hotter or difficult and more challenging. But right now, the overall general sentiments of the government and of leaders who are speaking out is that it's not who we are, that protest is not who we are. We welcome Christians even to pray on the sudden steps of the temple. We'll be right back. Eight six six three four truth with your questions and calls. Now word from our co-sponsor, Travita. This is Michael Ellison, founder and president of Travita Wellness. When I heard Line of Fire with Dr. Michael Brown, I knew this voice needed to be heard everywhere. A voice to help the church and spiritual leaders be strong.
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Here again is Dr. Michael Brown. Welcome to Thoroughly Jewish Thursday on the Line of Fire. Hey, to all of our friends that hear this broadcast on American Family Radio on Sunday afternoons, you probably hear this in our Friday show. Wish we could talk to you live, but so glad that for years now, thanks to American Family Radio, we've been able to come your way on the weekends, on Sundays, and many of you listen by podcast, watching on YouTube, Facebook after the show airs, welcome to the broadcast. And anyone that's able to call in live, we welcome your calls 866-34-TRUTH. Hey, would you pray with me about something? And then we're going to go to the phones.
Let's see, Sean, Johnny, Joshua coming your way momentarily. So we have a real burden to get back on the air in some cities where we were on years previously with large Jewish populations. And as if if you're watching, you say, Dr. Brown, are you tearing up as you're talking about this? No, I'm fighting off a little hay fever is what it is. I've teared up enough times on the air about things that are really dear and near to my heart.
But no, if I get a little teary-eyed, it's fighting off a little hay fever today. So anyway, you know, we used to blanket New York City into New Jersey on Long Island on a major station there. We get calls from rabbis, ultra-orthodox Jews, different ones that listen. We just launched in Chicago. So glad to be on our great new station in Chicago. Just a matter of days now.
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And we know that as we speak, it not only gives you information, but edification and importation. And hopefully every day, based on the picture next to the 17, we're helping to hold your hands up so that you can be strong, firm and not be intimidated by all the lies and misinformation and attacks that are out that will give you solid truth, infuse you with faith, truth and courage. So let's do that together. Thank you. If I could look each of you in the eye, I'd say thank you for praying and standing with us. It means the world to us and we're making a difference together. All right. We go to the phones.
Sean, somewhere south of Portland, Oregon. Welcome to the line of fire. Thanks for taking my question. I had a question about two Hebrew words that have relation to faith. The first is Amman, which we find in Genesis 15, six famous verse and the second is Amuno, which we find in Exodus 17, 12, where Moses was praying for Israel's victory against the Malachite. And also Habakkuk 2, 4, the famous righteous will live by his faith, by his Amuno, and my question was, do you see a distinction between the two or can both be translated as faith proper?
Yeah, great question. When I mentioned hands steady in Exodus 17, holding hands up, that's Amuno there. OK, so it's the same root in Hebrew. One is a verb, one is a noun, but it's identical root. So the root Amman in what's called the Hiphil, so causative, that's to believe.
Right? So that is to put one's faith or trust in someone. There's a great play on words in Isaiah 7, when Isaiah rebukes the house of David with King Ahaz and says, in Lotaminu ki Lotayamenu, if you will not believe, surely you will not be established. But it's a play on words, two different verbal aspects.
So it's the identical root. OK, now, in every context, every word has one meaning. So emunah, or that related noun in Exodus 17, that just means to be steady.
Right? That they held Moses' hands up so they were steady. So the root has to do with being firm, steady, and then putting one's trust in God or God, the aspect of God's trustworthiness, so faith or faithfulness. So it does relate to Greek pistis, faith, pistuo, to believe. But it's even more concrete in Hebrew, I would say, because of that grounding of faithfulness, steadiness. So wherever the context calls for it, Exodus 15, 6, without question, and all translations would basically agree on an ancient and modern, what it means to believe, Abraham believed in the Lord and it was counted to him as righteousness, or some Jewish translations say for his merit.
They all agree with that. Habakkuk 2.4, there's a debate, doesn't mean that the righteous will live be'emunahto by his faithfulness, meaning the faithfulness of the righteous one, or by the faithfulness of God, living by his faithfulness. Either way, what we get from it and what Paul quotes is we live by faith, meaning by our leaning on God and his faithfulness. So for sure, faith, faithfulness, trustworthiness, those would all be very, very valid translations, unless it was something just more natural, like, you know, being steady, firm in that regard.
But absolutely, these words are the Hebrew words of speaking of faith and faithfulness, without question, and its verb and noun, they completely overlap in meaning, for sure. So if that's correct, and I would agree with you, would you agree that the reformers who made a hard distinction between trust and obedience were mistaken then? Between trust, well, okay, just explain to me where you bring, and we may have to finish this on the other side of the break, but explain to me where obedience comes in.
That's just something we just, you just inserted here. So explain the connection in your mind between trust and obedience. It seems quite clear from Exodus 17, 12, and from Habakkuk 2, 4, in Moses' case, he wasn't merely exercising his intellect or even his confidence in the Lord when he was raising his hands and requesting help to raise his hand. He was actually obeying the command to raise his hand.
No, so you're definitely, you're reading something in there. Emunah has nothing to do with faith there. It just means that his hands, when they held his hands up, they were steady.
So there's no connection there. But the overlap between faith and faithfulness, that, you could argue it a bit more from Habakkuk 2. And for sure, there is an explicit connection, an explicit connection, scripturally, Sean, between faith and obedience. The Reformers may have recognized that by putting our faith in God at that moment, we are pronounced just, you know, it's counted to us as righteousness. But wouldn't you say that the Reformers tied faith and obedience together on another level, or do you think they made a clear distinction? They made a hard distinction, and they were very careful in the Westminster Confession of Faith, following those who followed them, to explain that ontologically, obedience only follows faith, and it has nothing to do, in its essence, with faith itself.
Got it, got it. But the problem is, in Hebrews 3, you know, in verses 18 to 19, the author of Hebrews says that they couldn't, the Israelites could not enter the Father's plan because they did not obey. And then he goes on to say, because of unbelief. And so he seems to be equating the two. Do you agree? Yeah, yeah. So sometimes in our theological statements, we can go too far with making ontological and intellectual distinctions, whereas it's much more organic.
So I wouldn't point to Exodus 17, but I would point to these other passages that true faith will always issue out in obedience. Hey, thank you for the call. I appreciate it. Hey, friends, this is Dr. Michael Brown, I want to invite you to join our support team, make an investment of one dollar a day that will absolutely last forever. You know, the Lord has given us a holy mandate to blanket America with the line of fire broadcast. And on a regular basis, we hear from folks writing in. Dr. Brown, I used to be a practicing homosexual. I listened to I heard grace and truth together.
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Here again is Dr. Michael Brown. Thoroughly Jewish Thursday, Michael Brown, a privilege and honor to spend this time with you. There are a million and a half or more podcasts out there now. Endless radio stations, endless YouTube videos, endless things to get your attention. So the fact you're taking time out of your day to listen to the broadcast blesses me.
And we do our best as a team to make every minute count so that we can be a blessing to you. If you have Jewish related questions in terms of messianic prophecy or Jesus being the Messiah and different aspects of that, by all means, visit our real Messiah website that is real Messiah dot com. Real Messiah dot com. If you have the Ask Dr. Brown app, you just scroll down and ask Dr. Brown Ministries app to scroll down on the home page and you'll see real Messiah.
Click on it. Always go to real Messiah dot com. Everything on the site is free.
Through the generosity of so many of our donors, everything on the site is free. So when you go there, you can watch full debates I've had with rabbis. Unedited. There's the whole thing. You can watch those. You can look at maybe the hundred most common Jewish objections to Jesus and get written answers, video answers, in some cases both. You can look at our Think It Through outreach series that we did on location in different parts of America.
Fascinating videos, really interesting. You can share with your Jewish friends and other materials there as well. So take advantage of that real messiah dot com. You've got a Jewish friend with questions about Jesus, send them over there.
And then if he's got further questions, if he's got further questions, they can contact us and we will personally respond with our team. All right. Eight, six, six, three, four, eight, seven, eight, eight, four. If it's Jewish related, it's welcome today on the line of fire. We go to Johnny in Dallas, Texas. Hey, Johnny, how are you listening to the broadcast right now? American Family Radio. Oh, OK, American Family Radio in Dallas in the midweek.
Hmm. So we're only on on Sundays. Well, we're also on K-word.
So check out Big FM station at Blankets, Dallas. But glad to be on the air right now. Yeah. Yeah. I'm sorry.
It is one hundred point seven. That's it. K-word. Yes. So on the weekend, Sundays, we're on American Family Radio. But I'm so glad you're listening on K-word, one of the great new stations that we just joined on.
So that's why I asked. Awesome. Thank you, Johnny. Yes, sir. Appreciate your broadcast.
Great. Well, my question has to do with eschatology. I was wondering if you could give an overview. I know this could take the whole show. An overview of end time events.
How they may unfold in and around Israel. Yes, sir. And if there's a specific research resource on your website. If you point us to that, I'm going to hang up and listen on the radio. Okay. Sounds great. Sounds great. So to all of our listeners on one hundred point seven K-word in the greater DFW area, that's become a home away from home.
You know, I'm there virtually every month during school year, at least five days a month teaching two different schools. And anyway, all right, so we understand there are different views and we don't divide over this within the body. There are different views. And I may say something that you really differ with. That's okay.
These are differences we can have within the body. I'm convinced that God will keep his promises to Israel and that on the one hand, through Jesus, the ultimate seed of Israel blessing has come to the whole world. On the other hand, Jesus does not cancel the promises to the patriarchs, but confirms them. Romans 15, seven and eight, Romans 11, 28 through 29, Paul makes plain that even though Israel right now, the Jewish people might be enemies of the gospel for the sake of the Gentiles. So through Israel rejecting the message, it goes to the whole world. Paul writes that for the Father's sake, they are loved.
Who? The Jewish people rejecting the Messiah, still loved for the gifts and calling of God are irrevocable. So God will keep his promises to Israel.
So here's what I believe. The regathering of the Jewish people back to the land is fulfillment of prophetic words that have never fully come to pass, like Ezekiel 36, that back in the land, God will continue to turn the hearts of Jewish people to himself, that we will see, as we've seen for decades now, the continuing harvest in the nations, more and more Gentiles coming to the Lord until we see the fullness of the Gentiles come in as per Romans 11, 25. And on the heels of this will be a national turning and national repentance in Israel is prophesied, for example, in Zechariah 12, 10 and following in Romans 11, 26. But in the midst of this, there'll be all kinds of upheaval, that the church will be here through whatever tribulation there is, that as all hell breaks loose on the earth, God will protect us from his wrath being poured out.
But we will be in the midst of a satanic attack and the attack of people, as it's always been, as brothers and sisters are persecuted for the faith right now. That, as Paul writes in Second Thessalonians 2, that that day of the coming of the Lord will be gathered to meet with him will not happen until there's a final rebellion and the antichrist revealed. So we will be here to see those things unfold. He will appear in the clouds for the whole world to see him.
We'll be caught up to meet him as he returns. We welcome him back and descend together with him in victory. I understand at that point, Isaiah 25 and 26 will come to pass as God destroys death from among his people. Establishes the kingdom of God on the earth. Jesus ruling and reigning out of Jerusalem for a thousand years over the survivors of the nations that attacked Israel and this Israel that has turned to the Messiah at the end of the age that we will rule and reign together with the Lord. It is at that point, I understand that we'll celebrate the marriage supper here on the earth as we celebrate the Lord's kingdom and the Lord's return.
And so in the years ahead, whether it's decades, whether it's longer, God knows in the years ahead, I believe we'll see parallel extremes. The great, great increase of the gospel around the earth, much falling away, great persecution opposition, ultimately a one world government under the antichrist, all hell breaking loose against God's people. The Holy Spirit poured out like never before. The finalizing of the harvest to the gentiles, the turning of the Jewish people, the return of the Lord, the destruction of the antichrist, the setting up of his kingdom for a thousand years where he fulfills the many promises he gave to Israel and Israel serves as a lead nation, making the light of God known to the nations in the millennial kingdom, after which there's a final rebellion, Satan loosed after this time of glorious kingdom on the earth, Satan loosed perhaps even to fully demonstrate the sinfulness of human beings, because with the nearness of God and the justice of God on the earth, people will still rebel, still turn away. And it will be the ultimate proof of the goodness of God and the evil of people. And Satan will then be destroyed, cast into the lake of fire, the wicked destroyed, cast into the lake of fire. And the Lord will reign forever and ever. New Jerusalem will come down, there'll be a new heaven and a new earth and no more problems forever and ever and ever.
The book that Craig Keener, Professor Craig Keener and I wrote together on this subject is called Not Afraid of the Antichrist, Not Afraid of the Antichrist, Why We Don't Believe in a Pre-Tribulation Rapture. It's written with love and grace towards our brothers who differ. Some of the finest Christians I know on the planet differ with us on this.
So be it. We serve the Lord together. Not Afraid of the Antichrist, Why We Don't Believe in a Pre-Tribulation Rapture.
You can check that out or just on the website, askdr.brown.org, just search for tribulation or rapture. You'll see a whole broadcast we've done on this, even debates I've done, discussions we've had. So those resources are free as well.
Or you can get the book. So thank you for the question. Let's go over to Joshua in Spokane, Washington.
Welcome to the line of fire. Well, thank you, Dr. Brown. It is always a pleasure to, it's always a pleasure to hear you talk about the things of scripture, sir.
Well, thank you. I was reintroduced to an old kind of debate between me and a friend of mine about the Gutenberg Bible and the increase of literacy and how in the West and how it was, it introduced kind of a destabilizing of good doctrine and all that sort of thing of Orthodox and whatnot in the church. And I didn't say this because I didn't know anything about it, but it came to my mind when, in ancient Israel and in the Hebrew and like in just Hebrew culture in general, how I hear these things, but I've never actually studied anything about it, about how about Torah school in specifically and how children were sent to Torah school and were to learn Torah and I would assume, well, actually, I wouldn't assume, I was wondering what kind of, what kind of lessons were taught in Torah school and how that may have reflected in a higher literacy rate in ancient Israel versus other countries of that same day, of their same day. Right.
All right. Great question, Joshua. So first thing, we really don't know for sure how literate ancient Israelites were.
There's debate about it. We know that Deuteronomy six, there was the exhortation to the parents to diligently teach their children to impress things on them, to repeat them to them, et cetera. At the same time, we don't know how well it was done and whether that meant reading and writing. In other words, much of the world to this day still is based on oral cultures. And we think of oral cultures like, well, how can you remember things? Well, that's how much learning has been done through history.
That, for example, if I just ask you to say the ABCs, everyone can sing them because that's how you learn them. So we don't rely on our memories as much. Before I was a believer, Joshua, I was known, this is my drug days, I was known for remembering phone numbers. I didn't have a single number written down, but any person I ever met, if we exchange phone numbers, I remembered their number for years.
And now I know my number, my wife's number, three or four numbers, that's it, because we have them on our cell phones. So it's amazing how much can be learned in oral cultures where they're not literate in terms of reading and writing, but they're literate in terms of having a lot that is memorized. So that we don't know. As we get closer to the time of Jesus, there seems to be more of an emphasis on teaching and training in Torah, that you have more groups that are studying Torah more. Now, we know later traditions. You know, it could be a few hundred years after the time of Jesus. It could have been in his time where there were studies in schools and kids would start with Leviticus and then they'd be memorizing large amounts of Torah. And to this day in traditional Jewish homes, there's a massive amount of study that's done.
I'll finish up on the other side of the break. This is how we rise up, it's our resistance, you can't resist us. This is Michael Ellison, founder and president of Trivita Wellness. When I heard Line of Fire with Dr. Michael Brown, I knew this voice needed to be heard everywhere, a voice to help the church and spiritual leaders be strong.
We need leaders like Dr. Brown, who's not only courageous, but applies the wisdom of God to help us have understanding in declaring God's word in love. And that is why Trivita Wellness has chosen to be a co-sponsor, along with you as listeners, supporting the Line of Fire radio broadcast. We also believe wellness and purpose is vital to our lives. I've written a book on the 10 Essentials of Wellness.
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Here again is Dr. Michael Brown. Thanks for joining us. It's a thoroughly Jewish Thursday, but people on the Israel tour said it was the tour of a lifetime, said it was life changing.
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And I just got to remember to mention one thing to you about habits of wellness, sleep and Psalm 127, so hopefully before the broadcast is out. So Joshua, if you just get online and search, right, you'll commonly see articles saying that literacy of Jewish people in the first century was maybe 3%, which would be considered relatively high in the ancient world. You'll see some that put it as high as 20%, right? And then if you're a traditional Jew, you might put it much higher because what happens in traditional Jewish sources, it will often retroject something that was maybe common in the third or fourth century A.D. and believe that this was what happened 500 years before the time of Jesus, right? And scholars would debate that.
I don't know any way to measure it factually, quantitatively. I mean, we have inscriptions, we have correspondence, we have things, you know, written documents, et cetera, but for sure, it was a strong oral culture so that people would learn massive amounts of material. But it would be learned orally, so someone would teach it, someone would recite it, someone would repeat it. That's how you'd learn it.
So that as scriptures were being quoted, they were familiar with them, but perhaps not by having read from a scroll themselves, but by being taught repetitively and then these things would sink in. But the exact education, a religious Jew will tell you, you did this, this time of the day, you did this, et cetera. But we just don't know it for sure from the first centuries. We don't have data that supports that. Well, if that's the case, and I mean, I'm not surprised by that at all to hear that, the percentages and whatnot. But would you say, then, that there was a heavy emphasis, at the very least, a heavy emphasis in Hebraic culture or Israeli culture to disseminate the knowledge of scripture, at the very least, to every stratum, to every stratum of the society?
I mean, look, again, the traditional picture would say absolutely yes, and that's what happened. You know, you've got people farming, you've got people just doing all types of other commerce and things like that. And they obviously weren't studying all day. But we know over the centuries for sure that one of the strengths of the Jewish people has been high literacy and a great emphasis on study and education. That's helped separate Jewish people over the centuries around the world. It's been part of the culture. And the culture definitely goes back to this idea of the importance of knowing Torah and learning the commandments and keeping the commandments. And even the annual festivals and things like that. Everything is reinforcing.
Do this to remember this, do this to remember this. And we know, for example, that the Philaean, the phylacteries, Jesus speaks about the New Testament in terms of hypocritical showing off with them, but we know they exist in the Dead Sea Scrolls so that these things have been going on where you're taking these parchments and putting them in these boxes and putting them on your hand to be by your heart and on your forehead on a daily basis. So there is definitely an inscripturation of the people, a taking in the scripture, transmitting it far more than in just in general in the ancient world. So I can say with confidence that the literacy rate would have been higher than among other peoples.
We just don't know how much higher for sure. Right. Awesome. Well, thank you so much, Dr. Brown. I give it some clarity and my conversation with my friend, maybe I'll mention it or whatnot. But thank you so much. I wish I could be more exacting. But here's the thing. It's just opinion.
You know, it's just opinion. And I try to say things so that you can take what I say with some degree of weight and confidence. Eight, six, six, three, four, truth.
OK, so going back to your calls in one moment. Many of you listening heard Michael Ellison, our co-sponsor with Travita, talking about his free book, Ten Habits of Wellness. You can get that by calling 800-771-5584. Right. Ten Habits of Wellness.
You can get it free when you call in. The first habit of wellness that he talks about is sleep. That's the one area in my life that is not like thriving. My diet thriving, my overall health thriving, exercise thriving. You know, the energy, my life thriving. But my sleep is not where it should be. And we're trying to figure out why I had sleep apnea for years. But you can address that at a certain level.
Is it do I need to go to sleep at different times or have different habits, etc? But one verse that I seek to take hold of as well is Psalm 127. And you know the verse, right? Unless the Lord builds the house, the laborer's labor in vain. And what does it say? It's attributed to Solomon when he's building the house of the Lord.
Right. So he's conscious of this. Unless the Lord builds the house, the laborer's labor in vain. Unless the Lord watches the city, the watchman, watch in vain. And then in vain, you stay up late, get up early, pushing, working, working, working. He gives sleep to his beloved. It doesn't mean we don't work hard, but it means that there is this rest that we have. And you can't work all day and all night.
You can't push yourself to the limit day and night. God gives his beloved sleep. And then through children, sons in particular, but then especially in the ancient culture, but children, that's the way that he gives you rest because as you raise your kids and they grow up and do what they're called to do and support that you can also rest from certain things because they're carrying some of the load. It's a multi-generational picture, but it's something to take hold of that God gives sleep to his beloved. So on the one hand, it's just telling you you don't have to push and push and push.
So you're burning the candle at both ends until you're ready to burn out and collapse every day and rest, rest. And here, God can bless the crops that you plant, right? You're not watching everything, but God can bless them so they grow. God can bless the investments that you make. God can bless the labor of your hands. God can bless the work that you do in other ways and smile on it so that at the end of the day you can rest and then on the broader scale, Yeshua says, come to me, all you who are working hard, burdened down. I will give you rest. So the ultimate rest, the ultimate fulfillment of Sabbath we find in him. All right, let's go back to the phones.
Ron in Canton, Ohio. Thanks for holding. Welcome to the line of fire. Shalom, Dr. Brown. Shalom.
I have a two part question, and it's a continuance of two weeks ago. I had asked you about wickedness and the definitions of different scenarios. I'd like to go to Second Chronicles 714 and some transliterations say evil ways or wicked ways. What would be the Hebrew for that?
And also, what is your discernment on those wicked ways specifically in America? And then I'd like to transition to Isaiah 63 and 10, and they grieve the Holy Spirit. I'd like to know the Hebrew for that and also your judgment at what point or what's the Hebrew for grieving and the Holy Spirit.
And at what point did King Saul grieve the Holy Spirit? Got it. Okay. So a bunch of questions there.
We'll see if we can get in in the minutes we have. So Second Chronicles 714 famous verse. Of course, if my people who are called when they humble themselves, pray, seek my face, turn from their evil ways. So in Hebrew, it's the standard way. It's I mean, it's over and over. Jeremiah is over and over.
Midar Hechem HaRa'im. Ra ra'ah means evil, wicked, something fundamentally bad. It's not a particularly nuanced word. For example, if you gave someone rotten apples, right, they'd be bad.
You use that same word. So it's something bad. It can be morally bad. It can be physically bad. When God brings it, it's not bad.
It's calamity. It's something bad happening to people that's deserved. But it just means evil, wicked. A parallel would be, for example, First Corinthians six beginning verse nine, don't you know that the wicked will not inherit the kingdom of God?
And then how does Paul express that? Well, it's sexual immorality of every kind. It's extortion, greed, slander.
It's breaking of God's fundamental commandments. So what are things that are wicked in America today? Pornography is wicked. Human trafficking is wicked. Racial hatred is wicked. Greed and extortion are wicked.
Wide ranges of things would all fall into that category. It's not a particularly nuanced word. Like you have another word for iniquity or another word for transgression. It's just something that is morally spiritually bad, hence wicked slash evil. As for the Hebrew for grieve, which verse again, will you think about Isaiah 63 or elsewhere?
Isaiah 63 and 10. Right. Right.
Got it. Yeah. So it's yeah, it's vehem v'tu et ruach kadsho. Yeah, it's to cause pain. The root there at salve has to do with causing pain. So it's to cause emotional pain would be what it means if you break it down. So grieve is the right translation, but it means to cause emotional pain. And that's what we do. And Paul reflecting on that in Ephesians four tells us not to grieve the Holy Spirit.
So think of it in a practical way, Ron, that if a parent raises a child to be a good, ethical child and to be a loving kind child, and instead that child ends up an unethical business person that steals people's money and destroys their lives. That's very grievous to parents. Painful to see. So that's all the time I have to answer the questions, but great questions. I appreciate them. Think of causing God emotional pain by the way we live. That's grieving the spirit. Another program powered by the Truth Network.
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