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What Is Midrash?

Line of Fire / Dr. Michael Brown
The Truth Network Radio
May 5, 2022 5:00 pm

What Is Midrash?

Line of Fire / Dr. Michael Brown

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May 5, 2022 5:00 pm

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The following is a prerecorded program so what in the world is midrash time for the light a fire with your host biblical scholar and cultural commentator Dr. Michael Brown your voice for more savvy and spiritual clarity called 866-34-TRUTH to get on the line of fire and out as your host Dr. Michael Brown for friends by radio or podcasting results. Welcome to the broadcast. My apologies to everyone listening on live radio yesterday there was an outage and Internet outage with our studio in Winston-Salem North Carolina. That's how we connect where I am in the world are in our normal studio in North Carolina. An hour and 1/4 out of Winston-Salem. We connect with a strong Internet connection to the studio to studio then sends things out by satellite around the country and then we do a live stream on Facebook and YouTube. What happened yesterday. Was there were outages Internet outages through the day in the area with the stimulus because of which we had to play repeat broadcast so my apologies to everyone. Looking forward to a brand-new show, but here we are through juice. There is that just limited to Doolittle teaching. I'm explain some different things in terms of Jewish traditional interpretation of the text and then spend the rest of the broadcast answering questions that been posted on Twitter so don't post them now.

The Raven posted I'll be answering them is much as I can in the order in which the case is heavy and informative, enjoyable, broadcast, okay. What is midrash you seen the term or the midrash says recording to the midrash were his midrash interpretation wasn't. Meanwhile, it is traditional Jewish interpretation of Scripture and it is homiletical it is expansive, it is often storytelling. In some cases traditional Jews will believe that it's recounting accurate information. In other cases is fully recognize that these are just various traditions and stories, some of which can be and in virtually a complete contrast with one another, but there just different stories there often beautiful there often highly illustrative.

They can be like parables that illustrate points and things like that but there are some of the most appealing enjoyable interpretations, especially for some of this nontraditional Jew because most of traditional Jewish literature is really engaged with digging into the text.

From a legal viewpoint to the laws. One of the commandments how they apply.

How does this work out in our lives today with the Torah application. The great bulk of the total Talmud which essentially studied by traditional Jews. Every day is is engaging in legal discussion legal debate, and the like. However the Talmud also contains this midrash material called… Holler, that is, legal material, legal interpretation, I got Don, that is homiletical interpretation there are some midrash books, the earliest ones that are mainly legal dealing for example with Leviticus, Numbers, Exodus, Deuteronomy, but the bulk of midrash literature is is not legally related.

It's not trying to figure out what's the law on this or on that. Rather, it is expansive, homiletical.

And as I said, really, really interesting. Often fascinating but understand this is not based on an esoteric knowledge that the rabbis had to fill in all the blanks in some cases, they would say that is the case in some cases I would agree other cases, I would differ, but by and large, think of this as beautiful storytelling as good preaching, but not necessarily what the text is saying that even example, when the 10 Commandments are given this a famous midrash that says that it was offered to the nations of the world so you know for example that the Moabites hey, how would you like the 10 Commandments, the laws we love them. We love the Torah what's in it.

While this is don't commit adultery is actually working to pass why because Moab and Mont were born out of the incestuous relationship of lot with his daughter. So that was another form of sexual immorality and adultery. Then they offered to other nations yeah we like it will take it. What is it say this is don't steal now or get a pass on that because we make our livelihood by stealing and then it's offered to others yeah they will take the Torah great was it say don't have any gods before me. All will actually be of lots of God's will pass on that will it's purely homiletical, it's purely storytelling. It's not meant to be historical. We know from Scripture that God did not do that and religious Jews believe that God chose Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and their descendents to to be entrusted with the Torah and the laws and the commandments so it's it's interesting storytelling. Another example there are targums which are Aramaic translations and paraphrases and expansions of the biblical text. The earlier they are, they tend to be more tied to the biblical text more carefully joined the biblical text.

The later they are the more expansive they become so there is a targums of the Pentateuch.

It is a secondary one is not the one that is is read weekly by traditional Jews along with the Hebrew text.

It's a secondary Targum, but it centuries later, because it centuries later. That means it's more expensive so I wanted to reach you. Genesis chapter 50 verse one here is what the the Hebrew Scripture say so. Genesis 50 verse 1S is a very simple straightforward verse Joseph flung himself upon his father's face and wept over him and kissed him. Jacob has just died.

Joseph flings himself on his father's face wept over him and he kissed him if I go to the main target that's read call Targum UNCLOS. Here's how it reads again in English versus Aramaic says what's I went to the wrong page there. That's why it was identical. Then Joseph fell on the face of his father and wept over him and he kissed it's almost identical right almost identical word for word. Here is the later target called pseudo-Jonathan or Jerusalem Targum target Duchamp is the later target it says this. Then Joseph made his father down in a bit of ivory overlaid with Feingold affixed with precious stones and held with fine linen courts there. They poured out foaming line and there they burned the best spices there. The man of the house of Esau and the men of the house of Ishmael were standing in their the lion of Judah, the hero of his brothers was standing. He answered and said to his father's gut. This is this is the Targum supposedly translation to Genesis chapter 50 verse one, this moreover, a father, a tall cedar whose top reach to heaven but it's branches shaded over all the inhabitants of the earth and its roots reach to the depths of the abyss from him. The 12 tribes arose from him will arise Kings and rulers and priests by the divisions to make offerings and from him.

Levites will make music according to their divisions.

Then Joseph inclined over the face of his father and wept over him and he kissed his is is not remarkable. That's the Targum that's midrash it adds in all these additional accounts and ads in these delicacy will maybe this is a tradition that was accurately passed on. That's weird because none of the later they are the further away they are for the original source. The more expansive they become, because the more the storytelling gets weaved in but let's look at another example okay let's go over to Ruth chapter 1 Ruth chapter 1. Now this time we there's only one Targum to Ruth, but it is a later target expansive paraphrase, which also includes much of the material that's found in midrash literature.

So I married Ruth once you verse one from the Hebrew okay in the days when the chieftains were the judges rule. There was a famine in the land, and a man of Bethlehem in Judah, with his wife and two sons went to reside in the country of Moab pretty straightforward right.

The Hebrew straightforward. Only question is how you render shelf team, judges, chieftains, right now, look at the target.

Are you ready Ruth chapter 1 verse one in the days of the leader of leaders. There is a severe famine in the land of Israel tends to their families were decree from heaven to be in the world for the day of the creation of the world to the time when the King Messiah shall come to prove through them.

The inhabitants of the world. The first rattle was in the days of Adam, the second famine was in the days of Islamic the third famine was in the days of Abraham, the fourth I was in the days of Isaac the fifth. I was in the days of Jacob. The six I was in the days of Boaz, who was called eaves on the righteous, who is from Bethlehem. The seventh famine was in the days of David, King of Israel, the eighth found was in the days of Elijah the prophet. The ninth famine was in the days of Elisha and Samaria, and the 10 famine will not be a famine of eating bread nor grout of water right of hearing a word of prophecy from before the Lord of this travel was severe in the land of Israel great man from Bethlehem of Judah went out want to dwell in the field the ball up his wife and his two sons. That's midrash friends. That is storytelling that is adding in other traditions making a part of the biblical text. It's beautiful. It's interesting, it's fascinating, but it has no authority behind that's midrash that's totally different that a legal ruling in Judy's.

The Talmud says this.

The law code say this, that's a completely different animal and traditional Jews understand the the difference between these give you one last example of midrash been doing some writing and tying them so midrash it seems lately source, Monda thought, a thoroughly Jewish Thursday affair with you. Okay so you know, Deuteronomy 64 Shema Yisrael of the Nyla Haney a denial, traditionally understood hero, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is one or hero Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. So or he is the only Lord depending on how it's understood. So it is Moses calling Israel to this proclamation that they have one God and one God only. The midrash that says in Genesis 49, when Jacob was about to die is going to bless his sons before he does.

He senses something while he senses some type of uncleanness and and he says is there idolatry among you there. Remember his name is Jacob/Israel, and according to this, the sun say that I'm here oh Israel, our father listen to us. Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord alone. The Lord is our God, the Lord alone because it will hang out in my heart that this is children of Israel. This is a visual stage of their father Israel clear visual idolatry.

Again, the we come back. I the line of fire with your host Dr. Michael Brown get on the line of fire by calling 866343 here again is Dr. Michael Brown when clearly on our twitter account. Follow me on Twitter DR Michael L. Brown to Elsner DR through Dr. DR Michael L. Brown, if you want to follow me on Twitter and what we do on Twitter is different than what we do on Instagram we do on Instagram is different than what we do on Facebook reduce on Facebook is different than what we do on YouTube. Aside from our live streaming states where you connect, you will get minister to all before I do that there reminds you of this month's special offer. My book has God failed you is designed to help those who are struggling in their faith. If you're having doubts, questions not sure what you can believe you lost your faith entirely, but you're still around gospel themes in circles maybe have a loved one that that doesn't believe the way they used to anymore they turned away from the faith. This is the book for you for them. Has God failed to funny faith in you. Not even sure God is real, so we we give you permission to to ask you questions and air your doubts and we go through a lot of difficult questions like what happens when prayer doesn't seem to work. What what happens when healing doesn't come what happens when when people challenge is not the God of the Old Testament is genocidal equal for the killing of the canines, men, women and children had explained that we go through these difficulties, many of which tie-in with thoroughly Jewish Thursday but then we provide you with solid faith building answers that will satisfy heart and mind. We do it in a way that will edify you and restore your confidence in God and his word so go to my website now asked Dr. Brown a SK DR Brown's Argosy run on the home page click to order get as many copies as you want. Of course we do only give you instant access instant video access to a message I preach.

You can watch it online soon as you place your order and it is from a recent message I preached on why so many Christians are leaving the faith. We give you a lot of insight that alone I think will help build and strengthen your faith okay over two twitter William asked is a true that the Disciples of Christ, the Disciples of Christ chose were very young. Like, 14, 15 years old when my pastors believe that though. I forgot his theological reason behind it.

I personally don't think so.

It's unlikely they were that young Keith does call them children.

At one point but that seems more to relate to their maturity and their responses more than anything else. We know that Peter is married right.

We know that Matthew has a profession and a house. We know that the other disciples or or working in various employee your fishermen and things like that so it seems they have their own trades. In some cases they're working with your parents, but that would not be uncommon to be working with their fathers, even when they're older. The other question would be is God really going to entrust them with the leadership of the nation and the leadership of the body. So the spiritual leadership of the nation and the leadership of the body at the ages of 14, 15 and 16 that seems more unlikely and therefore I do not believe that they were that young.

We don't have anything in Scripture that says they were that young could some of them have been older teenagers could well be that wouldn't surprise me as much know some people are doing pastoral ministry at 18 or 19 and and some by demand even younger like a tribal region with his know the leadership but I doubted I highly doubt they were 14, 15, 16 okay Barry asked this. How would you interpret the prophet Jeremiah's word in Jeremiah chapter 30 verse seven regarding Jacob's trouble, but is it exclusively for the past right Jeremiah prophesying to his people about the coming destruction from Babylon so it's exclusively for the past and therefore of no relevance to the future. Is it something that was for the past has happened again through history and will be for the future as well or is it entirely future. I thought about this a lot working on my Jeremiah commentary. I really wrestled with this so I want to dig in a little deeper on this one Jeremiah chapter 30*verse one word which came to Jeremiah from the Lord. This is the Lord, the God of Israel. Write down the scroll, the words that are spoken to produce, declares the Lord will restore the fortunes of my people Israel and Judah's of the Lord.

I'll bring back to the land they give their fathers they shall possess it. So in other words, they will be scattered. They will be driven out of the land they will lose their homeland to foreigners who will take control. In this case, the Babylonians, but I will restore the first restoration takes place 70 years after the children of Judah are taken into captivity people of Israel. These are the words that the Lord spoke concerning Israel and Judah's of the Lord. We have heard cries of panic and terror without relief asking see truly males do not bear young what enjoys every man with his hands on his loins like a woman in labor. Why have all faces turn pale that day is awesome. There is none like it is a time of trouble for Jacob, but he shall be delivered from it that day, declares the Lord of hosts that will break the yoke from off your neck and I'll rip off your bonds stranger shall no longer make slaves them.

Instead, they shall serve the Lord their God the king, raised up for them right so you could argue that this is entirely future because the messianic King has not yet waned over the nation of Israel. Israel hasn't bond been in bondage to many foreigners and many other nations and many of the rulers and therefore it is highly on likely that there will be a an application of this only in the past. However, it's completely untenable to think that this refusal refers only to the future when Jeremiah is speaking of something about to happen in his day and imminent destruction as though he was prophesying past that my understanding is in its first application, it refers to the Babylonian exile in the return from exile, but is something that happens again in history as the Jewish people suffer terrible dispersion and pain even the horrors of the Holocaust, but the ultimate promise as they will be restored to the land in a lastingly and they will serve their king, the Messiah, so it has passed application going back to Jeremiah's day is ongoing application to history and his favorite future application. At the end of the age.

As I dug into the text in-depth and it would bore some of you would be hard for the communicate on radio for everyone in a constructive way. But I can say is I really dug into it, it seemed clear to me that it was layered speaking of the past and the future as well write back to your twitter questions.

Why do you think this is from Carrie what you think the Lord wanted to stick with the leadership model of the judges rather than point to Kingman judges seem to be few and far between, and some may have lacked some morals on their own with Miller about his preference, leadership styles in the Old Testament so God knew the tendencies of humanity to look to a person rather than to him and the goal. The ideal was that he would be the king over the nation, God would be the king of the nation of Israel, and they would look to him alone as their king. Other than that they would look to earthly kings, national leaders who would often lead them astray would even lead them into idolatry. So that's why God work with the judges as long as he did, but it was also an inevitability that you can have a king, and God foresaw that and for new that that's why he he legislates kings in Deuteronomy 17 and that's why he then brings the Messiah through the promise line of David Cayson asked this you think Ecclesiastes is Solomonic so why do many conservative Old Testament scholars find the linguistic evidence against it persuasive okay if you told me that something was written by William Shakespeare using words like well think of contemporary English words that have only existed in the last few generations that William Shakespeare is talking about atom bombs and William Smith.

Shakespeare is talking about the United States of America.

William Shakespeare is talking about planes and jets and trains while you knows that William Shakespeare because those things did not exist in his day into the words or the concepts as well. So there are developments in language when you go back and look at the original King James with spelling it's very different than what were used. So if you say here. Here's the original King James and it spells music MUS I see no that's not original or it spells color CO L all are supposed all you are no that's not original because that's not the old spelling same with grammatical forms. If you have the and now ye and stuff like that you know is not authentic is not the original so the language that the linguistic markers in in Ecclesiastes .2 later. Heber most scholars believe they point to later. Heber, some have argued that actually more like tribulation. This is the faith that many disabled in this together later and therefore, we understand that on the surface, someone speaking as if he were Solomon telling stories, but an argument can still be made for Solomonic line of fire with your host Dr. Michael Brown get on the line of fire by calling 866-34-TRUTH there again is Dr. Michael Brown working that five maybe six list of them in the summary of each article and you click on link and read it or another email that says hey, here's a Wednesday watchlist here all the new videos that we posted through the week summary of those videos and click to watch them or hey, here's our new resource offer new material that we've just made available if you're not getting those don't miss a want you getting a notice when I come to speak in your area or free plan to do some special ministry that you can get involved with good asked Dr. SK DR and the just click for the email update.

Sign up and we do we want to send you as a gift. A free mini book and e-book how to pray for America arts villagers Thursday we go back to Jewish related questions on twitter, this is Zach, but you work Dr. Brown thank you have a question about Genesis 38 aridity can be translated something like the voice of the Lord working in the spirit S that is Jesus. The word in spirit was that not an accurate reflection of the that's deftly reading into more that than it says right now that the fact is the Hebrew word for wind is the same as the word for breath or spirit rule the same with Numa and Greek so it's the context that determines what it means right so Genesis chapter 3 verse eight and I'm gonna read first of from the Hebrew, the issue of who Sylvie schmooze so they heard it, call other life, though the voice of the Lord Elohim, the voice of the Lord God be to ladybug on the roof off how your own walking back and forth in the garden of the rock biome at the roof off of the day right these Karbala David told me to Nate. I do not Elohim the toll states are gone. So they sewed together. Excuse me wrong wrong verse the house. This okay so the man and his wife Mme. the East Co. they hid themselves from the Lord God among the trees of the garden is looking to see the new JPS there. That's what I was looking at. Okay, so the way the the new JPS translates as they heard the sound source, the voice or the sound of the Lord God of Yahweh Elohim moving about so slowly going back and forth in the garden at the breezy time of the day the rule Ohio it if it's not speaking about spirit is not at the spirit of the day or in the spirit, absolutely not. Rather it's it's at the windy time of the day or read from the NIV, which is good be very similar, it says this scrolling down in the man's wife heard the sound of the Lord God so cold you mean voice or sound as he was walking in the garden of the code.

They self it sees him walking the garden new JPS sees it as the voice of the Lord, going back and forth to the sound of the Lord in the cool of the day so the breezy time of day is the cool of that but it is definitely not in the spirit that is wrong. Whoever said that was not rightly understanding the Heber.

It is not debatable.

There in terms of the rule of meaning in the spirit.

Dust of Rev. Martin Anthony's ass. I read one specific rabbi that the garments worn by the high priest never got stained with dirt or blood was time they were passed on down from generation to generation for the next high priest perfectly soft. That would just be a fanciful tradition, there is zero historical a textual support for that zero historical or textual support know it doesn't talk about how to wash them how to clean them right doesn't talk about how to fit them properly for each new person. So based on that someone could come up with a fanciful tradition member.

If you listen for the beginning we talked about midrash. These often fanciful traditions but no no no, there is no historical or textual support for that whatsoever I seventh vial was the Jewish perception of what Ezekiel's temple is when they believe the Lord is saying in Ezekiel 44 about their service in said temple. Okay, so the traditional Jew has very little struggle with Ezekiel 40 to 48. Why they believe that in the messianic era, the Messiah will regather the exiles from Israel will rebuild the temple, will establish Torah law for all Jews to live under will destroy the wicked who seek to destroy Israel and will bring peace on earth, so that all of the nations on the earth will stream to Jerusalem to learn about the God of Israel and will be obedient to his laws for Gentiles of the Jewish people are required to obey all of the laws of the Torah and their traditional light and interpretation that's of the traditional Jew expects. So with the rebuilt Temple.

There will be rebuilt Temple worship there will be sacrifices again. She said we knew temple worship and sacrifices all these things will happen in the third Temple.

According to Julius. Therefore it's no surprise in Zechariah 14 when it speaks about all the nations of the earth come to worship the God of Israel at Tabernacles the feast of Tabernacles. Emily speaks about the sacrificial vessels vessels that are used for sacrifices to sacrifice will be restored to Ezekiel 40 through 48 lays that out. Meticulous detail with boundaries and regulations and is recognized in traditional Judaism that the be some changes because the situation of the world will change religious traditions this in the world to come.

The only sacrifices that will be offered will be Thanksgiving offerings because God will no longer remember the sin of his people and therefore you won't need to have the day of atonement in the same way the different traditions about that but traditional Jews would have little trouble expecting that there will be temple service with priests and Levites functioning with sacrifices being offered.

With all this Taking Pl. in Jerusalem was Christians would have a harder time with that saying the blood of Jesus pays for all sin. The sacrifice on the cross is once for all, and needs not ever be repeated and therefore there is no purpose in blood sacrifices in the future so from the Christian perspective. Some say what Ezekiel 40 through 48 was just an ideal temple. It was to be realized when the exiles returned from Babylon when they didn't repent adequately.

It was never put in motion.

Others will say no, no, it will happen in the future abut it.

These things are representative and just as the Old Testament sacrifices pointed forward to the Messiah, the sacrifices will point back to the Messiah as Israel teaches the nations about God.

Others say no note there will be sacrifices, but they do not take the place of the sacrifice on the cross and was they have to do more with ritual cleansing ritual purging is another meaning of atonement, not actual forgiveness of sins. So there's a difference there. They'll have a function but they don't compete with or replace the sacrifice of the cross, which is the ultimate and only way that God forgave sin through history. The blood sacrifices never took that place. That's another argument. Another argument for the Christian perspective is, no, no, this is just symbolic of worship that is not meant to be taken literally, this is all symbolic of worship and adoration of God.

That's all it's doing.

And some priestly terms.

So those are some of the Christian/messianic Jewish responses to the question of the third Temple again. Those that say symbolic and not to be literally understood. Don't believe in a millennial kingdom at all. They just say that we go from here into the eternal age millennial's, etc. for traditional Jew, though their problems still. Why because the regulations here don't line up with the, the, the Torah regulations.

There is the dimensions of the temple are different than the dimensions of the tabernacle/temple, the third Temple is different than the first or the second Temple, or the tabernacle. So how does that work and based on the vision. It seemed that Ezekiel was to be directly involved. As if this should have happened with the return from exile.

This is even a text used by some traditional rabbis to prove the resurrection of the dead, because it speaks of Ezekiel's participation in the temple that must yet mean future so even for traditional Jew. There are some pros there actually other problems as well. So how it's interpreted is challenging for everyone. The concept is not challenging for traditional Jew that there will be 1/3 Temple sacrifices, but the specifics of it dripping chose therefore I said, I suggest everyone reaches treats the subject with with carefulness rather than being dogmatic because their questions for everyone. In terms of how this will ultimately be realized, I got time for another question here. Chad hi Dr. Brown I often sit on the front row at see if I were you come to speak often next summer here gobbling budget will tomorrow. No actually act tomorrow.

I'm out next semester.

If you there. Say hi so this is Chad from twitter office of the front row.

See if you come to speak. Thank you for your ministry very welcome. Are you familiar with and do you have angered you have any thoughts on Michael hostages, many of which are covered in this book the unseen realm yes I'll go to ask Dr. Brown daughter or typing. Heiser, Dr. Heise is been my guest a number of times I been his guest on his show as well. We finally got to hang out last June face-to-face and have some fun interacting and we did a mini debate of whether a hotdog was a sandwich or not.

That was the folks with the new TV channel so they could you do this for us so we we did a lot of fun but but anyway yeah just watch those videos. I agree with a lot of Dr. Heiser's prospectus but not all of them agree with a lot but not also be a breakdown of specific questions for sure. There is an unseen realm that is of great importance in Scripture with angels, demons with God himself and for sure the nations of the world worship.

Some of these angels or demons as deities. These are some of the false gods and powers of the nations, and ultimately, there is not God at all is only one true God.

But how much we should interpret in terms of the divine counsel of what we should understand intensively for the things like that are definitely lost and we have some areas of agreement ancillaries okay come right back with more of your questions here on thoroughly Thursday alone. For if you're new to the broadcast.

Wyoming necklace online after he found out it would go there for the line of fire with your host Dr. Michael Brown get on the line of fire by: 866-34-TRUTH here again is Dr. Michael Brown smiling as always on the thoroughly Jewish Thursday broadcast of answering questions that were posted on twitter. Again, I would encourage you if you if you struggled with explaining to people how the God of the Old Testament can be good and kind and merciful light of some of the harsh things that are there to check out my book has God failed to find faith in you. Not even sure God is real good asked Dr. you see it right on the homepage, the special video that I want to give you a link to to watch is to many prepositions. There, now I know me to restate you know what I'm saying go and check this out. And when you order the book give you instant access to a video message I recently preached why so many Christians are leaving the faith.

Kevin I'm a year and 1/2 into learning Greek and now couple weeks into learning Hebrew using for tacos beginning biblical Hebrew. Some curious if he was the Hebrew language expert have any particular tips getting a grasp of Hebrew okay part of it is like any other language a little a lot a little a lot a little a lot keep working at it every day. Keep keep reading through things whatever syllables you can pronounce whatever the letters you've learned the words, you can't just keep reading over and over.

A little every day a little every day and then especially for Hebrew because the letters are more foreign to you than the Greek Elyse Creek has a lot of commonality in the words have more overlap like accrual in Greek.

I hear okay that's no that's an easy one to remember right, or area.

More things like cabal out you know the cast out will think of throwing a ball you do that more with Greek some of them related to the English others that just you can have these little plays on words little easier to do it with Greek then with with Hebrew because it's it's more foreign. The vocabulary that that the Greek is related to English in ways that Hebrew is not related to English so because things are more foreign you really want to learn the letters in the pronunciation as best as you can and then keep reading over and over to develop more fluency in reading and then you really want to do your best to learn how to parse verbs that it is similar with Greek throws Greek. Greek is much more complex and I say that is a non-expert of Greek but you have so many more tenses and it's so, so much stricter in it in and give you time frames and things like that but you know in Greek that the final form of the verb hardly resembles the root as well.

The same in Hebrew, but to the extent you're familiar with parsing and end the rules with weak verbs and things like that you won't stumble as much and then just stay with it. So keep going with you Greek hopefully you're well enough in that that you can sort these out and then really master the basics so that it you can read it more fluently you get a better feel for and then avoid reading a translation until you have no choice. In other words, keep trying to figure out using a dictionary before you go to translation selector start reading the Bible, don't read it with the English next to it.

It's too easy a crutch read it as best as you can without the English and then when you need it. Go to the English.

This will just force you to learn better. And then there there are things called a readers addition different publishers put these out and what I'll do is any word that occurs 50 times or more will not be referenced at the bottom of the page, but if it's less than 50 times. It'll be found at the bottom of the page and in other words, it's is less common vocabulary so that gives you little help. Instead of having to turn to the dictionary all the time.

So if you need a crutch that that's a good crutch. That's a useful crutch all and end. Remember he was like it in the language, the language don't believe all the stuff about 9 trillion hidden meanings in the text, but I trust you know that by now Giles. Two questions were in regards to Psalm 51 five GC.

This is proof that David was born guilty of sin, you see any significance in the use of your calm instead of Herat so here David is famously saying I was born in iniquity and send did my mother conceive me. So there are some who argue that this has nothing to do with Original Sin whatsoever. Not a hint of it rather this is saying that David was born the morality that never was his mother committed adultery had sex before marriage or whatever and that's how David was born and releases. I was born in iniquity and sin did my mother conceive me. That's what he's referring to, and I'm repeating the pattern that's what he saying that it seems though in context that he's confessing the death of his own sin and the recognition of his own guilt and therefore therefore is talking about. This is how I was born I was born sinful. I was born polluted the makes more contextual sense because we have no evidence outside of this that David was born in a morality as to the meaning of hope, of how raw assault is not necessary. Born guilty of sin, the good born in sin born sinful by nature.

As opposed to guilty of sin right that saying I was guilty of sin at birth but polluted by Senate birth, why does it say how raw you can see because he say Ray for the moment I was conceived I do sinful nature so that's that's the significance of that. The moment I was conceived at a sinful nature. Luke the first century Jews consider the Old Testament coming close with. They have been open to more writing profits by the end of the first century, it seems fairly clear that there was agreement that the Canon was closed. You can even argue by the early century that it was clear that the Canon was closed based on document preservation based on quotations in the New Testament, etc. based on quotations in the strata of the earliest rabbinic literature as Scripture. According to Jewish tradition and the Council of Jaffna or Janita or John the in the year 90.

The official decision was made on on the canon of Scripture.

So be the end of the first century to the extent that that's an accurate tradition than that would settle that question, but I think you can make a case that it was even settled before that were they looking for more writing profits. No, it was rather a debate as to which books belong that were extant and and the last of the prophets would've been understood to be Malachi several centuries earlier also know it was believed that that there were, there is not ongoing prophetic witness that was added to Scripture that was canonical there other books that were included in summer later the dating of Daniel is always disputed, but no not to my knowledge, I mean there are some rabbinic texts that seem more open to prophecy but not at that time, but not in the sense of of prophetic words being added to Scripture. Albert, since God appeared to Abraham, Jacob, in a form whether Jews think God can present himself as Yeshua they don't believe the same way that we believe that God literally appeared to Abraham in Genesis 18, they would say it was three angels bearing the presence of God or representing God, Michael, Gabriel and and Rafael, they do not believe it was the Lord and to inches, which is clearly what the text is saying Genesis 32 it says. Jacob wrestled with a man.

Hosea 12 says he was a Moloch in Angel Jacob says of seeing God face-to-face and calls the play spin the ale face of God so traditional Judaism would say that that the angel carried the presence of God, or something like that. Some even see the seesaws of Angel Somma L. These are again just Jewish traditions and interpretations. They would also make a difference between God appearing in the in a theophany God appearing say in the cloud, and it on Sinai in the fire. Things like that – then an incarnation in which he literally became a human being. So within Judaism that idea of an incarnation is really frowned on, although I'm quite sure we can make an excellent case for based on Scripture gallants was an Old Testament Jewish understanding of judgment held eternal nature of the soul what ancient you think happened after the dying did they have any notion of the Messiah affecting the dead either dead before or after his coming. The emphasis in the Hebrew Bible is on this world those that died were sits asleep with her ancestors. There seem to be somewhat of a foggy notion of life beyond the grave.

That then developed into a clear notion of resurrection future resurrection from the dead and Daniel 12 to some would say that was there from the start. It seems that God gave Revelation over time about the state of the dead and the final resurrection of the dead, some to everlasting righteousness and blessing, some to everlasting shame and contempt as to the idea of eternal nature of the soul that was not widely held in Old Testament times, in the way of the later Greek concept, but rather the resurrection of the dead to either salvation or damnation as to role the role of the Messiah in that there are some Old Testament Internet connection but nothing specific.

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