Share This Episode
Our American Stories Lee Habeeb Logo

How Curious George Escaped the Nazis?!

Our American Stories / Lee Habeeb
The Truth Network Radio
December 5, 2022 3:02 am

How Curious George Escaped the Nazis?!

Our American Stories / Lee Habeeb

On-Demand Podcasts NEW!

This broadcaster has 2123 podcast archives available on-demand.

Broadcaster's Links

Keep up-to-date with this broadcaster on social media and their website.


December 5, 2022 3:02 am

On this episode of Our American Stories, did you know that author-illustrators Hans and Margret Rey fled Nazi-occupied France on handmade bicycles with the manuscript to the first Curious George book among their meager possessions? Louise Borden is here to tell the story. She is the author of The Journey That Saved Curious George: The True Wartime Escape of Margret and H.A. Rey.

Support the show (https://www.ouramericanstories.com/donate)

See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE
Our American Stories
Lee Habeeb

Hey, there's a better way to fly. Instead of being stuck in endless lines and packed onto planes, try simplifying your travel with Surf Air. Save an average of two hours on every trip and avoid crowded airports with a new way to fly private. With Surf Air, you'll fly from smaller airports closer to your home.

There are no lines, no waiting, and no stress. SurfAir.com, the best alternative to commercial air travel that makes flying easy. Get a free quote on your next flight at SurfAir.com.

There's a better way to fly private. So you never became a soccer star, but you could still show out during the FIFA World Cup 2022 with cool soccer swag from Frito-Lay, the official USA snack of the FIFA World Cup 2022. Add your picture to the Golden World Soccer Ball, then pass the ball to fellow fans for a chance to score custom swag. Scan the QR code on specially marked bags of Lays, Cheetos, or Doritos, or visit FritoLayScore.com to join the Pass the Ball Challenge. No purchase necessary.

Open the legal residence for the USDC. 18 plus C rules at FritoLayScore.com. Cadillac is an iconic American brand for a reason. Not just because they've been around for 120 years, but because it's a brand that pushes the limits. And they're doing it again with the all-electric Cadillac Lyric. Meticulously crafted, fiercely original, boldly electric. It's an EV as uncompromising as you are. The all-electric Cadillac Lyric. Be magnificent, be electrifying, be iconic. Order your Lyric at Cadillac.com.

2023 Lyric orders are full, but go to Cadillac.com and complete a pre-order from model year 24 to be among the first to order a model year 24 when available. And we continue with our American stories. The idea for Curious George began in the creators Margaret and H.A. Ray's earlier book about a lonely giraffe named Raffi who befriends nine monkeys, the youngest of which is called Fifi. Eventually the Rays decided to develop a story just about Fifi. This was one of the stories they smuggled out of France just before the Nazi invasion during World War II, only to learn when they got to the US that American publisher Houghton Mifflin had doubts about the name Fifi for a boy monkey.

And so Fifi became George. Here is Louise Borden with the story. Louise is the author of The Journey That Saved Curious George, The True Wartime Escape of Margaret and H.A.

Ray. Let's take a listen. Welcome to all who enjoy our American stories. I'm the author of many books for young readers and my subjects range from Kindergarten to the Holocaust.

When I find a real event that inspires me, like the wartime escape of Margaret and H.A. Ray in 1940, I begin a winding road of research. A few years ago, an Ohio kindergartner told his librarian before my visit to their school, Louise Borden is a studier. The librarian corrected him and said, you mean Louise Borden is a student? And the kindergartner stated again, no, she's a studier. I love that term studier. She's a studier.

I love that term studier. A project may take five or even eight years until I hold a bound book in my hands. And I'm just the first person of a publishing team who will create that new book, whether it's 32 pages or 200. Six of my books are set during World War II. I tell young readers that I didn't live through World War II. My sisters and I were born after the war occurred.

But our father served in the U.S. Army Air Forces in the Pacific and returned home while his brother, a naval officer, did not when his submarine was lost in 1944. I've honored my uncle by writing Across the Blue Pacific, illustrated by Robert Andrew Parker. When kids read our book and say they're inspired by Ted Walker's wartime story, it's very moving to me. Some years ago, I was asked to speak at an event whose theme was Telling the American Story. Besides my uncle, I've written about other inspiring Americans, the Wright brothers, Bessie Coleman, the first African American to earn a pilot's license, the children of Boston on the eve of the American Revolution. So I'm pleased to join in a podcast with the title Our American Stories and tell you the story behind what I think is my most important book, The Journey That Saved Curious George, The True Wartime Escape of Margaret and H.A. Ray, published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Join me on two journeys. My own journey as a writer and amateur detective and the journey of the Rays, who brought the story of a monkey and his friend the man with the yellow hat to the United States. The famous book Curious George, created by H.A. and Margaret Ray, is now 80 years old.

But George is ever young. Whenever Americans watch tragic events on TV and see refugees around the world leaving their homes to avoid hurricanes, or earthquakes, or war, I'm struck by the parallels to June 1940 with an exodus from Paris and other French cities when almost 10 million people were on the roads. What if you had to flee from your home or town right now? What would you take with you as you traveled into the unknown along unfamiliar roads?

And what would you leave behind? When I was growing up, I knew those yellow Curious George books on the shelves of my school library, but I knew nothing about the author H.A. Ray, whose name appeared on the covers. I had no clue what the H in the A stood for, but I was a reader and I loved social studies. And later on my sixth grade report card, my teacher Mrs. Ray wrote, quote, I think Louise will enjoy research all her life. Bon voyage.

When I see her words now, decades later, I know wise Mrs. Rieser would be pleased that her prediction came true. Here's a bit of background for my journey. Years ago, on a college study trip to Europe with fellow history students, my sister and I were on our own for several days and we bicycled along country roads in Holland with just a few items in the baskets on her bikes. I never imagined then how this experience would help me when I wrote about Margaret and Hans Ray decades later. My senior research at Denison University was the European response to Hitler, focusing on resistance movements and ordinary citizens set against the canvas of wartime events. Ever since, I've held a lifelong interest in World War II. My first book for young readers was published in 1989 and at the time I was part owner of an independent bookstore and subscribed to a trade journal, Publishers Weekly, often called PW, to learn more about the industry of books. Later I left my bookseller job to pursue the writing life but continued to read PW. After publishing six or seven picture books, I began The Little Ships, The Heroic Rescue at Dunkirk. From my college studies, I knew about the exodus of refugees from Paris to escape from the German invasion and the plight of British and French soldiers trapped on the beaches at Dunkirk. One day at my desk, surrounded by research for The Little Ships, I paged through that week's Publishers Weekly and noticed a short autobiographical sketch of Margaret and H.A.

Ray. And in this snippet, Margaret Ray said, in June 1940, on a rainy morning before dawn, a few hours before the Nazis entered, we left Paris on bicycles with nothing but warm coats and our manuscripts, Curious George among them, tied to the baggage racks and started peddling south. We finally made it to Lisbon by train, having sold our bicycles to customs officials at the French-Spanish border.

Our migrations came to an end one clear, crisp October morning in 1940, when we saw the Statue of Liberty rise above the harbor of New York and we landed in the USA. Wow, how amazing. Bicycles.

That's quintessential Curious George. Instantly, I wanted to know more. I found a map of France and traced a line from Paris to the Spanish border. Hundreds of miles.

Where did they take a train? I had an image in my head of Margaret and Hans, unknown artists in a sea of refugees, an image I would carry with me over the next years of trying to find their story. I kept marveling to myself. What an incredible journey. I assumed there must be a book about this, a book I wanted to read.

But there wasn't. No one had dusted off the history until a seed of wonder and curiosity was planted that morning when I read Publishers Weekly. I labeled my first folder of notes June 1940.

This file would grow to dozens of folders and boxes of information scattered across two rooms of our house in Cincinnati. I emailed Houghton Mifflin to ask if anyone there knew details about the Ray's escape. No one did. And you've been listening to Louise Borden, who a student, a young student, I think aptly called her a studier, because that's in the end what she was and is. She's a studier of other people, a researcher, a fancier word, but I like studier. And this story is as much about her as it is about Margaret and H.A. Ray's story. In fact, they intersect. I had an image of Margaret and H.A.

Ray as unknown artists in a sea of refugees. He tracked that bicycle trip. He looked at it. What was that like? What an adventure. He tracked that train ride. She was trying to walk in the shoes of another. And that's what studiers do.

When we come back, more with Louise Borden, studier, historian, and just straight up great storyteller here on Our American Stories. Passing the ball is fun. The Frito-Lay Pass the Ball Challenge is more fun. Frito-Lay, the official USA snack of the FIFA World Cup 2022, is giving you the chance to win custom soccer swag and amazing prizes by joining their Pass the Ball Challenge. To enter, just scan the QR code on specially marked bags of Lays, Cheetos, and Doritos and look for the Golden World Soccer Ball. Be part of history by adding your picture to the Golden Ball. Explore the ever-growing soccer community, find friends on the ball, and receive a one-of-a-kind collectible NFT. Then pass the ball to fellow soccer fans and play daily games for a chance to score custom swag like limited edition jerseys, duffel bags, scarfs, and balls. Grab a specially marked bag of Lays, Cheetos, or Doritos or visit FritoLayScore.com now to join the Pass the Ball Challenge and you can win amazing Frito-Lay prizes. No purchase necessary.

Open the legal residence of 50 USDC, 18 plus C rules at FritoLayScore.com. When the world gets in the way of your music, try the new Bose QuietComfort Earbuds 2, next-gen earbuds uniquely tuned to the shape of your ears. They use exclusive Bose technology that personalizes the audio performance to fit you, delivering the world's best noise cancellation and powerfully immersive sound, so you can hear and feel every detail of the music you love. Bose QuietComfort Earbuds 2, soundshaped to you.

To learn more, visit Bose.com. Imagine air travel that's simple, hassle-free, and fast. That's Surf Air. Save hours on every trip, avoid busy, crowded terminals, and fly from airports closer to your home. No crowds, no long lines, no stress. With Surf Air's private flights, you're in control of your travel day, not the other way around. SurfAir.com, the most convenient way to fly. Get a free quote on your next flight at SurfAir.com.

There's a better way to fly private. And we continue with our American stories and with Louise Borden, author of The Journey That Saved Curious George. We last left off with this remarkable and young artistic couple landing at the shores of New York. Let's continue with Louise Borden. I emailed Houghton Mifflin to ask if anyone there knew details about the Ray's escape. No one did, but I was pointed to Le Le Ong, the executor of the Ray estate. Margaret Ray had died recently at the age of 90. Oh, how I regretted never being able to meet her.

And H.A. had passed away in the late 1970s. Le Le, living in Boston, would become an early and steady encourager of my vision for a book. She told me she'd just shipped dozens of boxes from the Ray's long creative lives to the de Grumman collection at the University of Southern Mississippi. So I called the de Grumman's curator at the time and asked her to look for any envelopes with a return address in Paris.

And she called me back. The Terrasse Hotel, 12 Rue Joseph de Maistre. Off I went to Paris to find the Terrasse Hotel. But on my first visit there, yes, it still existed and was beautiful. The owner and the manager were away.

No one could help me with any information. Back home in Ohio, I found some biographical facts about the Rays. I learned the H stood for Hans and the A stood for Augusto and that Hans's last name was Reiersbach. Hmm, why did H.A.

change his name to Ray and when? I learned Margaret and Hans were both German Jews who'd grown up in Hamburg. I learned Hans was born in 1898 and Margaret was born in 1906. That their families knew each other in Hamburg. That Hans, who loved animals and could imitate the sounds of many, lived near the Hagenbeck Zoo and served in World War I in the German army and was a self-taught artist. That after the war, due to hard economic times, he left Hamburg to live in Rio, Brazil and he was to live in Rio, Brazil.

Brazil? Soon I had folders labeled Hamburg and Brazil. I learned that Margaret, Margaret Waldstein, had attended art school and was a photographer and artist and 10 years later in 1935, after Hitler came to power in Germany and began his Nazi laws against Jews, Margaret also left Hamburg and went to Rio.

There she connected with her family friend Hans Reiersbach who was to shorten his name to Ray and the two artists were married in August of 1935. Very importantly, as German-born Jews, they became Brazilian citizens and in 1936 they sailed to Europe taking pet marmosets with them aboard their ship and traveled on to Paris to spend their honeymoon. The images for a book for young readers were all there. Here was the larger story beyond their escape on bicycles. Without a contract from any publisher, I headed to the de Grumman collection early on a dark, rainy Ohio morning, leaving my house at 5 30 a.m., the same time I would learn the rays left Paris.

When I finally arrived in Gulfport, I rented a car and drove 60 miles north to Hattiesburg where the de Grumman collection is located. Most of the documents were in black and white but scattered across my work table were the colors of the books created by H.A. and their now iconic illustrations. I was instantly drawn to Hans's first book published in France and also in England titled Raffi and the Nine Monkeys with its bright green cover about a giraffe and nine little monkeys including the youngest named Fifi. I spotted a telegram among some papers, have had a very narrow escape, baggage all lost, asking for money to be wired to the rays, signed Ray.

Thankfully the rays were sabers and kept everything from their publishing lives. Royalty statements, editorial letters, drafts, ideas, sketches, proofs, and black and white photos taken by Margaret in the 1930s and 1940s. I came home from this first trip to the de Grumman with hundreds of xeroxed copies. I would later enlarge these tiny pages and translate them with the help of my sister Cindy in Missouri and in Cincinnati my former high school French teacher Renee Lowther who'd lived through the German occupation of France. I recall the day Cindy and I with pages strewn across her dining room table read the June 12, 1940 entry in Hans's calendar written in French. Left Paris at 5 30 a.m by bicycle.

We realized then that H.A. was going to tell us where he and Margaret went on the two bicycles that he'd assembled from spare parts in a Paris bike shop the day before the rays left the Taras Hotel. I soon had folders of maps of France, Spain, and Portugal.

I made tracking calendars for the years 1936 to 1940 writing on various dates where they were including a chateau in 1939 where the rays visited friends for three months working on art for a book about a curious monkey named Fifi and I added Hans's diary entries onto my 1940 tracking calendar. Each day he'd scribbled a few words about their journey south from Paris. Then I began working on an early draft. When writing for children I'm always thinking about the structure of the book.

How can a long ago time and complicated political era best be shown to young readers and what will expand the text in meaningful ways. I was enchanted by a small watercolor painting at the de Grumman that Hans had made in Hamburg at the age of eight. Bingo I said to myself that's where I'll begin this story in Hamburg with Hans as a kid.

Here's the opening text. In 1906 Hans-Augusto Reiersbach was a boy growing up in Hamburg, Germany a port city with canals and a thousand bridges and the river Elbe that ran to the North Sea. At the age of eight Hans spent many hours in the cold breeze near Hamburg's docks watching foreign ships and barges move along the Elbe.

For the rest of his life Hans would love both and rivers and the sea. I took more research trips returning to Paris to stay in a balcony room at the Terrasse hotel just as the Rays had stayed in a balcony room where they spent their honeymoon in 1936. But instead of staying for a few weeks the two artists ended up living at the Terrasse for four years. On that trip I rented a car and drove out of Paris gripping the wheel. I headed south along country roads to Etampes, Tours and Orléans using a 1940s map of France following the bicycle's footsteps that Hans had noted in his calendar diary. Then in Orléans I veered off their escape journeys route and took a train south to find the chateau near Lecteur. The owners a British couple who became as amazed by the Rays lives as I was when I explained Hans and Margaret's years in France. Their months working on book projects in a tower room of this very chateau and later their escape from Paris. And you've been listening to Louise Borden and indeed Studier is becoming more and more well what she was Tracker. I mean imagine from Hattiesburg to Paris and then using a 1940s map retracing the steps of this remarkable couple these artists. When we come back more of Louise Borden's trek to discover the real life story and escape of Margaret and H.A. Ray from the Nazis here on Our American Stories.

From the Nazis here on Our American Stories. Okay so you never became a professional soccer star but you could still show out during the FIFA World Cup 2022 with cool soccer swag from your friends at Frito-Lay. Frito-Lay the official USA snack of the FIFA World Cup 2022 is giving you the chance to win custom swag and amazing prizes by joining their pass the ball challenge. Just grab a specially marked bag of Lay's, Cheetos or Doritos scan the QR code and look for the Golden World Soccer Ball. Be part of history by adding your picture to the Golden Ball. Explore the ever-growing soccer community, find friends on the ball and receive a one-of-a-kind collectible NFT. Then pass the ball to fellow soccer fans and play daily games for a chance to score custom swag like limited edition jerseys, duffel bags, scarfs and balls. Visit FritoLayScore.com or scan the QR code on specially marked bags of Lay's, Cheetos or Doritos to pass the ball and you could win amazing Frito-Lay prizes. No purchase necessary.

Open the legal residence of 50 USDC 18 plus C rules at FritoLayScore.com. When the world gets in the way of your music try the new Bose QuietComfort earbuds too. Next-gen earbuds uniquely tuned to the shape of your ears. They use exclusive Bose technology that personalizes the audio performance to fit you. Delivering the world's best noise cancellation and powerfully immersive sound so you can hear and feel every detail of the music you love. Bose QuietComfort earbuds too, soundshaped to you.

To learn more visit Bose.com. Hey there's a better way to fly. Instead of being stuck in endless lines and packed onto planes try simplifying your travel with Surf Air. Save an average of two hours on every trip and avoid crowded airports with a new way to fly private with Surf Air. You'll fly from smaller airports closer to your home. There are no lines, no waiting and no stress. SurfAir.com the best alternative to commercial air travel that makes flying easy. Get a free quote on your next flight at SurfAir.com.

There's a better way to fly private. And we continue with our American stories and the story of Louise Borden in many ways and her journey to find out about the journey that saved Curious George and that would be Margaret and H. a Ray's journey and how these two journeys in the end intersect. Let's pick up with Louise Borden where we last left off. This was in the late days of cassette tapes and when I was in my car alone driving hours to travel to schools for author talks I often listened to an audio recording I'd found at the de Grumman collection. Here's a clip from a WGBH Boston radio interview of the Ray's in May 1966.

This recording brought me closer to the artists I was trying to write about. We were living in France when we did the first Curious George. George was really born in France. As a matter of fact I tell you a little more precisely we did a book about a giraffe and the giraffe took nine little monkeys in and one of those little monkeys was George and then a while later we thought of a book about a monkey and we did this first Curious George. Never thought of a series and then over the years we get so many letters from children saying what can George do next and won't you do another book so then we did another book. Tell us about Curious George in the hospital. Did it start because you had a child who had to go to the hospital? No we don't really don't have children. But you have Curious George instead. Yes it is sort of a child and it's one of the children who take care of their parents you know.

We are in the monkey business you might say. Tell us about your background. We're both from Germany but my husband left it in Germany in 1925 where I left it much later and we met again in Brazil in the 30s. You mean you knew each other in Germany? We knew each other a little bit in Germany. I knew her when she was a child at her father's house and she doesn't remember it. She came sliding down the banisters and I was standing downstairs with her older sister and there she came that's how I met her.

Aren't those voices so wonderful to listen to? After Journey was published at his office in New York I met André Schifrin the son of Jacques Schifrin, Hans' editor at Gallimard, and showed him his father's letters to H.A. André's fifth birthday was the day the Germans marched into Paris.

The Schifrin family would also leave France due to the German invasion and because Jacques who was Jewish had lost his job. Jacques was the editor who'd first encouraged H.A. Ray to write for children and published Raffi and the Nine Monkeys. He would settle in New York City like his friends the Rays and become a founder of the publishing house Pantheon Books.

The seven original Curious George books have now been printed in the millions and are published in many languages. I signed two book contracts with Houghton Mifflin and Amy Flynn became my editorial guide for both the book about the Rays and the book about Ted Walker, my uncle. My first visit to her Houghton Mifflin office in Boston was on an October day. I walked up Boylston Street with my manuscript The True Escape of Curious George tucked in my backpack and it was snowing.

October, the calendar month that the Rays arrived in the United States. I'd recently written a book called Sleds on Boston Common published by Simon & Schuster and so I told myself don't be nervous. I love snow and today will be a great day to discuss my heroes Margaret and H.A. who for years had walked on snowy Boston sidewalks headed to Houghton Mifflin to discuss their Curious George projects. At some point Amy and I began to discuss who would illustrate the text and I'd admired the work of Alan Drummond. We structured the book with two parts, two artists and Escape from Paris and after Alan finished his illustrations they seemed to me to be as iconic as H.A.

's book characters. Whenever I open The Journey That Saved Curious George I love seeing Alan's watercolor map of the route the Rays followed from Paris on those bicycles before they boarded a train in Orleans and continued on to the French border and then on through Spain and Portugal carrying with them a few possessions and precious manuscripts including one about a curious monkey named Fifi who had a friend the man with the yellow hat. After spending weeks in Lisbon called the city of refugees at the time the Rays took a ship the Angola and sailed across the Atlantic to Rio holding those important Brazilian passports. Then with visas to travel on to the U.S. they boarded a ship in Rio and sailed into New York Harbor on October 14, 1940.

Hans stated in a letter in the archives, one never forgets the day you arrive in America. Alan's wonderful map at the end of the book shows these sea voyages. Now kids can join the journey too. I want them to know those roads the Rays followed and the courage it took to travel them. Now kids can be inspired by the sea journey of Margaret and Hans and the artistic talent they brought to America. Kids can also find in an in section of the book some of the photographs that helped me as a detective. I want them to see as I did in Mrs. Reeser's class that research is intriguing and fun not boring.

Imagine our world without curious George. In late September 1940, three months after the Rays' escape from Paris, a Nazi ordinance required all foreign Jews living in the occupied zone of France to register at police stations. Beginning in June 1941, thousands of foreign Jews were deported. Margaret and Hans were no doubt have been on one of those trains to Hitler's camps. Have had a very narrow escape, Hans wrote on that long ago telegram to relatives.

A very narrow escape. Isn't that always George? George gets into mischief because of his antics and his curiosity, but then in each book with his own very narrow escape, isn't that always George? George gets into mischief because of his antics and his curiosity, but then in each book with those familiar yellow covers gets out of trouble for a happy ending. One of my favorite illustrations from the first of the seven original Curious George books shows the man with the yellow hat walking down a ship gangplank and ahead of him is George holding a passport. Today George is our ambassador for reading around the world and also for curiosity. Since the publication of The Journey That Saved Curious George, there have been exhibits across the U.S. and even an animated documentary about Margaret and Hans. As H.A.

stated in the recording I listened to on that cassette tape years ago, we are in the monkey business. Isn't this the quintessential American story of two artists who fled wartime Europe and arrived in the U.S. bringing their ideas and art? The light of the illustrations created by H.A., a man born in 1898, still shines across libraries and bookstores in our 21st century. When I'm typing away at my desk the courage and optimism of Margaret and Hans are always steady inspiration to me.

H.A. once said, let's think of the future, that's where we shall spend the rest of our lives. How lucky we are that the Rays and their stories and their ever young book character George are still with us because of an escape on bicycles, because of help along the way, because Margaret and H.A. sailed into New York Harbor, because they became proud U.S. citizens six years later. What a wonderful ending and also a wonderful beginning to this beautiful American story. Now George belongs to all of us, so it's our story too. And a terrific job on the production by Greg Hengler and a special thanks to Louise Borden for sharing her story with us. And she is the author of the journey that saved Curious George, the true wartime escape of Margaret and H.A.

Ray. And my goodness, no truer words could ever be said. On October 14, 1940, this couple comes to the New York Harbor. One never forgets the day you arrive in America. My grandparents both told me that again and again. Let's think of the future, H.A.

told his bride. That's where we'll spend the rest of our lives. And that's why people come here too. Not for the past, they're escaping that. They're coming for the future and for future generations. The story of Louise Borden, the story of H.A. and Margaret Ray, the story of two artists escaping from the Nazis, and best of all the story of this character George, who made the world a more beautiful place. Here on Our American Stories. new way to fly private with surf air you'll fly from smaller airports closer to your home there are no lines no waiting and no stress surfair.com the best alternative to commercial air travel that makes flying easy get a free quote on your next flight at surfair.com there's a better way to fly private passing the ball is fun the frito-lay pass the ball challenge is more fun join frito-lay the official usa snack of the fifa world cup 2022 for their pass the ball challenge look for the golden world soccer ball and explore the ever-growing community then pass the ball to friends for a chance to score custom swag grab a specially marked bag of lays cheetos or doritos and scan the qr code or visit frito-lay score.com no purchase necessary hey guys want to know how to be the best gift giver this holiday season spring for something unexpected like beauty from estee lauter surprise her with a fresh floral fragrance like estee lauter's best-selling beautiful magnolia or give the gift of glowing skin estee lauter's advanced night repair offers seven skincare benefits in just one bottle you'll find something for every beauty lover on your list at estee lauter plus free gift wrapping and free shipping shop the holiday collection today you
Whisper: medium.en / 2022-12-05 06:03:41 / 2022-12-05 06:16:25 / 13

Get The Truth Mobile App and Listen to your Favorite Station Anytime