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September 27, 2022 12:01 am
Many people imagine that the Puritans were self-righteous hypocrites. But history tells us a different story. Today, Stephen Nichols sheds light on the true character of the American Puritans and their passion to spread the gospel far and wide.
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When you hear the word Puritan, what comes to mind will correct some of the stereotypes and misrepresentations next on Renewing Your Mind. When we study the history of Christianity in America we Missed it. Unfortunately, there are plenty of negative stereotypes attached to them. But since they are such a vital part of our history. We need to know what they believed. Let's find out is Dr. Steven Nichols continues his latest teaching series Christianity in America. We were talking about the roots of American Christianity and one of those roots. Of course, is the new England Puritans will spend this time with you talking about the Puritans, who were the Puritans now as we get into this, we have to deal with first. What are the perceptions of the Puritans, especially in American culture where we are right now or we find ourselves, our understanding of the Puritans largely comes to us mediated through a few things up.
One of them and you might've might recall reading this back in high school literature class or in a college literature class is Nathaniel Hawthorne's the Scarlet letter and of course as you read that story you come across this notion that the Puritans are self-righteous hypocrites right the hero of the story is the one who is ostracized from the Puritan community. The one who's marginalized and doesn't fit in. In the Scarlet letter a which was a symbol of shame ends up evolving into this almost trophy as Hawthorne unfolds his novel the other thing we learn about the Puritans is through play written by Arthur Miller and it came from a context. It came from a context of the McCarthy era purges and so he looked back to a no other moment in American history where the term witchhunt actually originated and so he takes us back to Salem, Salem and the Salem witch trials of 1692, 1693 and of course same thing comes out of that. These are self-righteous hypocrites who actually burned people who were dissenters and didn't agree with them. So much of what we understand of Puritans in popular American cultures mediated through these things. There was that the famous HL Mencken the reporter at the Baltimore Sun and just an American cultural commentator very curmudgeonly.
Mencken and Makin had this great quote about the Puritans. He said that a Puritan is anyone who thinks that somewhere, someone might just be having a good time. That's a Puritan right and we even have this expression Puritan tentacle right that's not a compliment that someone who's stuffy and someone who's rigid and and someone who has applied the strict rules to themselves while. Can we just blow all those stereotypes out of the water. This is not true of Puritanism.
So let's first look at what Puritanism is and then let's look at a few key Puritans just to get a handle on some of them and get to know some of them will the first thing is we come into what Puritanism is, is a set of beliefs but not just beliefs. These are really convictions your talk about confessional affirmation and conviction.
These are convictions that get played out, and how the Puritans lived, and at the top of the list is the Puritans were God centric. It was a view of the sovereignty of God. It was a view of the holiness of God. It was a view of the transcendence of God. These Puritans are a seasonal that there they're not anti-education and not anti-learning.
The Puritans were all many of them before they came to New England or Cambridge trained in Oxford trained and they were trained in classical education and they were classical theists.
They had at the center of their worldview, a high view of who God is and that also played out into their worship of God, which is very central for them. In fact for the Puritans. All of life is to be lived in the worship of who God is. So we start with God that takes us to worship.
The other thing we find with the Puritans is they were people of the book, the Bible was very much a part of Puritan culture and the Puritan mind go back to the New England primer. You know that the learning of the alphabet and I don't know if you know what the B is but the VA is be heaven to find the Bible mind. In other words, this is to be your guide. This is the authority for your life. The Puritans were people of the book you seen this even at the center of their worship at the center of their church architecture. This is you walk into some of these New England meeting houses and sometimes mostly they were rectangle.
Sometimes they were squares, but as you walked into the building.
They were very plain.
Not not like the Anglicans are not like like the Lutherans they were very plain tend to have plateglass windows, plain pews, but immediately your eyes were drawn to the pulpit. It was always prominent. It was always displayed off the ground.
Sometimes you had to literally climb a ladder to get up into it, and if if you've ever read Moby Dick you know there's that great story before they head out to see they go to church and back church, the pulpit was the mast of a ship any climb the rope ladder to get up into the pulpit and then once he was in the pulpit. He brought the ladder up with them right.
He was stuck there till he was done, but the idea of the pulpit was was twofold. One was a practical reason this is this is before microphones and you had sound systems and some of these churches are pretty large and this is also an era before hearing aids and some of these congregants were maybe on the elderly side and couldn't quite hear as well as they once did. And so the pulpit being lifted up in the pastor being literally over the congregation would allow for the pastor's voice to carry out over the congregation was an acoustic purpose that was only secondary. The main reason was the symbolism that we come to church to sit under the authority of the preached word. The sermon was like a blood sport for the Puritans was it was the highlight of their week.
The sermon, and it was a tour de force training in the word of God sitting under the authority of God.
So you begin to look at a Puritan worldview was God centered, because it was God centered and focused on worship and not just the. The community worship on the Lord's day, but all of life is an act of worship.
And of course are to be people of the book. The other thing that you find about the Puritans is they were Calvinists. Of course they were Calvinists because they have a high view of God. But they're going to follow through on all of these doctrines they're going to affirm the doctrine of Original Sin go back to the New England primer B is heaven to find the Bible mind you might've heard the one for any in the jingle for a is in Adam's fall we send all and so they start off with this notion of total depravity that we are on regenerate that we are dead in our trespasses and sins.
And if that's the case, then salvation how we come to faith in Christ is exclusively only solely the work of God.
We call this monitor Judaism and monitor Judaism literally means the work of one and here were talking about the work of God. This is going to be very important because it's this Calvinism that is the theology that dominates and undergirds the first great awakening. And if that's the case then that's going to make its way through the preaching is going to make its way through and the converted understanding of what is happening at conversion as we move into the second great awakening were going to see a shift away from Calvinism. In fact, on some of the major figures of the second great awakening. We are going to see a flat out rejection of Calvinists, and so the opposite of monetarism is sin or just asked why and or that's the Greek we could go to the Latin Co. Opera no. I always love this because this to me is a great definition of Opera. It takes work to listen to an opera so I know my buddy Dr. Derek Thomas is spinning around right now that I just said that. But Opera means work and code means together is our salvation is a cooperative endeavor between us and God.
In fact, you even come to hear revival preachers say things like God is waiting on you. God is waiting on you. What are you going to do will fast for little bit because I just have to find it exciting, but will fast for little bit. There's a there was a track that was put out by Billy Sunday and it was like a ballot that you would vote and it had three columns God, the devil, and you and it had two columns on the side for and against. And God has voted and you know how God has voted he's voted for you to God's for you, but the devil voted the devil voted he's against you.
So God's for you.
Satan is against you to tie in the final column with you.
It's a? It's now up to you. You cast the deciding vote. So let's go back to Puritanism.
Let's think this through. This is not just an affirmation of Dr. impacts how we understand salvation and how we enter into the Christian life and has everything to do with how we live the Christian life right so these were Calvinists, and because they were Calvinists. Salvation is the work of God alone right now. One last is and I'm writing downhill now. But it is the covenant.
Now this is very key.
The covenant structures all of the relationships within the Puritan world. First, the covenant structures. Our relationship to God. This is what we see in the Old Testament God enters into a covenant with his people. In fact, we see it dramatically and vividly portrayed, and as you go through the Old Testament. What do the prophets do as they come onto the scene.
They remind Israel that they are God's covenant people. They remind Israel that God has been faithful to the covenant he redeemed you from your slavery in Egypt. He brought you out of that land, and he brought you into the promised land. He's given you everything you need. He's brought you into this land of milk and honey God has never ever broken covenant or failed. But what if you done right, even in a box knows its owner, even a donkey knows its owner.
But my people don't know my name so broken covenant. This is very important to the Puritans. This notion of covenant that governs first and foremost our relationship to God, but did not covenant moves out to the human relationships that we have so in the family.
There is a covenant bond. There is a covenant between father and children and children and parents. There's a covenant between husband and wife and they spoke of marriage as a marriage covenant that would be entered into the covenant dominated the family, but moving out.
The covenant also dominated the church and sometimes Puritans would even use that language of church membership, they would speak of you signing a church covenant and justice covenant relationships have blessings when there is obedience and curses or judgments when there is disobedience, so it is with this covenant in the church so that the pastors of a church covenant to nurture you and to bring you up right in the admonition of the Lord and to provide for you, nourishment of the sermon in the Lord's supper and what do you covenant with the church. You covenant obedience and so one of the things that the Puritans took very seriously and I got this from from John Knox and the Scottish Reformation branch is church discipline and this becomes this is this is the Scarlet letter. This becomes one of those things that is used 224. Pillory the Puritans and to make fun of them and to deride and we all think of the town stocks right as representative of the Puritan town, well not only does the covenant govern our relationship with God in the family and the church also governs our relationship with one another in the society and so you see this in the pilgrims right. Even mother still out on the boat before they land on New England soil. It's the Mayflower compact was a covenant that they would obey the authorities and the authorities would set up structures to protect them and provide for them if they disobeyed the authorities right punishment would set it even spoke of themselves. In John Winthrop. Does this on board the Arbella and and will talk about Winthrop.
In a moment. But winter was not a minister, he was actually a lawyer ends up being a politician as a being the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, but it is Winthrop that preaches the sermon on board the Arbella before they land and it's in that sermon titled a model of Christian charity that he gives that phrase a city upon a hill, but it's also in that sermon, the Winthrop says what we are establishing here is a Bible Commonwealth and that is a covenant that this these colonists of the Massachusetts Bay colony, which will evolve to become the colony of Massachusetts to covenant with one another.
So the covenant governs all relationships and here's the thing about Puritanism Puritanism functions best as a whole system.
It's almost like an either or thing Puritanism is not really something that can sort of be halfway as part of either is or it isn't, and what you see is within a few generations. Puritanism becomes, isn't right and and Edwards is even feeling it in his own congregation in the 1720s in the 1730s. He's feeling himself to be a Puritan. All of this marks Jonathan Edwards. He's he's the God centered theologian of God centered theologians Jonathan his congregations no longer Puritan. They moved away from this they moved away from these things governing their lives, but we go back to that original generation and the second generation. We see this is working Puritanism well. In addition to the covenant or say one more thing, because we forget that sometimes I think I got room here and that is they are people of two books.
They are people of the Bible there people of the book, but they are also people of the book of nature, and they use that as a gateway to not not hide from learning but to run into learning. One of the first things they do in Massachusetts when they get here after they have a governor after they know build a home and after they plant some corn they found Harvard University.
They were all about education. Most of the Puritan leaders who landed on the Arbella had degrees from Emmanuel College and Trinity College in Cambridge and one of the things they made their students at Harvard. Do was write original poetry and if you wanted to write it in Latin, so be it. They loved learning.
They loved exploring room talk about cotton Mather increase Mather. These were scientists.
In addition to being ministers and so we forget that sometimes about the Puritans that these Puritans were not just about exploring God's word. They were about exploring God's world and they loved learning and they love learning about God's world. So we just talk about a few of the key Puritans and just give you some little bit of texture to some of the Puritans.
One of them is John Winthrop, the one we mentioned Winthrop is the one who saw colonial New England is a Bible Commonwealth give you his dates. He was born in 1588 in old England. Of course, and dies in 1649. I do find it interesting that he's not a minister but he's the one preaching and giving the sermon to serve launch this vision as they leave the Arbella and begin the settlement at New England, another stalwart Puritan was cotton Mather Mather was born in 1663 and he died in 1728.
Mather is New England royalty. His maternal grandfather was John cotton, who is one of those early Puritans first Church Boston and his father was increase Mather and cotton Mather wrote one of the first. This is why like to talk about him.
He wrote the first Church history of American church history book ever written. It was called Magnolia Americana. Christie the great works of Christ in America and it was his way of chronicling these events, of seeing that this is really the work of God in bringing the Puritans there and establishing that but he went on to write on all subjects.
He wrote on medicine.
He wrote on science. He wrote on astronomy, he wrote on hermeneutics. He wrote on theology. He is to me that consummate Puritan whose mind just explores every nook and cranny terms over every stone in the stream and honestly I think it goes back to the focus on worship in the God centered and remember what Isaac Newton said Randy. He studied science and studied how the world works, so that he would have an even grander vision of the greatness of God and the creation that he gave us and that was cotton Mather, one of my favorite Puritans is the Puritan poet and Bradstreet. She was born in 1612 old England came to New England on board the Arbella 1630 she dies in 1672. Both her father and her husband were governors of Massachusetts, but she was America's first poet. Her book of poetry was published in 1650, the 10th Muse and what you find. I totally commend to you the poetry of and Bradstreet what you find in the poetry of and Bradstreet is applied Puritanism.
She's writing poems on the death of her children. She's writing poems when her house burns down, and all of those you see her resting in the sovereignty of God. It's beautiful applied Puritan theology, the poet and Bradstreet one final Puritan to mention this is the apostle to the Indians has. He was soon called. This is John Elliott. He was born in 1604. He died in 1690, translated the Westminster shorter larger catechism into Algonquin and then in 1661 he translated the New Testament in 1663 translated the Old Testament into Algonquin.
They were published together and it was the first Bible published in America, the Algonquin Bible. Through the efforts of John Elliott.
In fact, if you'd asked John Elliott he would tell you that the Puritans were brought here all the way across the Atlantic and firm number right. I think the Arbella traveled at a whopping 2 mph.
So here you going across the Atlantic Ocean at 2 mph hold on to your seatbelt right. All of this to bring the gospel to the natives that were here so those are some of the Puritans next episode.
Sadly going to look at decline of Puritanism and what went wrong so pick it up next time to study church history is to study God's unbending faithfulness. Men like John Elliott spent their lives bringing the gospel to others remembering church history helps us as this almost said to recount all of God's wonderful deeds report an encouraging message by Dr. Stephen Nichols to the here on Renewing Your Mind as we continue his latest series Christianity in America in 12 messages. He takes us from the pilgrims all the way through the 20th century.
As you study with him will begin to understand why the American church stands were those today will be happy to send you this to DVD set for your donation of any about to look at your ministries you can make your request and give your gift by phone at 800-435-4343 or online at Renewing Your Mind. The word, but when we think about the Puritans in America their doctrinal integrity comes to mind, but by the mid-17th century. We begin to see some cracks in their foundation. For example, they began to say this, you will need to be regenerate.
You don't need to be a member of the Q4 church. Hence, Puritanism in order to have your child baptized. It is one step towards nominalism, and it is a step away from a faithful church.
Please make plans to join us tomorrow for Renewing Your Mind